Relation Between Nutritional Risk Factors and Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers and Non-Smokers Resident in Jeddah Governorate, Saudi Arabia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 375-383
Received: Apr. 1, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 21, 2015;
Published: May 4, 2015
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Mostafa Osfor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Department of Laboratory Medicines, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Abo Bakr Baslama, Department of Laboratory Medicines, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Ammar Abdallah Attar, Department of Laboratory Medicines, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Science & Technology Unit, General Presidency for the Holy Mosque & Prophet Holy Mosque Affairs, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Innovation Department, Associate Executive Department of Innovation & Corporate Integration, King Abdullah Medical City in Holy Capital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Samaa El-Soadaa, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Mohamed Khereldeen, Department of Laboratory Medicines, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
National guidelines for coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction have focused on high-risk families, yet little is known about prevalence of risk factors in general population. To determine the magnitude of the problem relative to the general population, a community-based pilot study of the widely accepted CAD risk factors was carried out over the period of 12 months on a random sample of apparently healthy adults (n =880), aged 18 – 60 years, living in Jeddah Governorate. Three hundred eighty eight (388) subjects (156 males and 232 females) residing in Jeddah town (urban group) and four hundred ninety two (492) subjects (264 males and 228 females) adjoining different rural centers in Jeddah Governorate (rural group) participated. The study was based on complete history taking, prevalence of family history of CAD, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and history of current cigarettes smoking. Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly high in urban than rural men and in urban than rural women. Systolic hypertension was recorded in 30.8 % of urban men, 25.8 % of rural men, 24.6 % of rural women and 13.8 % of urban women. Total caloric intake per day was much increased in urban than rural women and in urban than rural men. Serum total cholesterol was significantly higher in urban men and women than in rural men and women respectively. Total cholesterol / HDL ratio showed insignificant difference in the studied groups. Serum Cu+2 and Mg+2 were significantly higher in urban than rural women. Serum Zn+2 and Zn+2 / Cu+2 ratios showed insignificant difference between the studied groups. Meanwhile, rural smokers showed significant increase in serum level of total cholesterol and Cu+2 with low Zn+2 levels. BMI correlated significantly with serum Mg+2 in urban women and serum Cu+2 in urban men. The prevalence risk factors for CAD were markedly raised in rural women and urban men, while rural men showed high prevalence of absence of risk factors. Prevalence of major risk factors increases in rural areas and may be due to dietary and life style changes. Serum trace elements like Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mg+2 may predict coronary ischemia as they correlated significantly with BMI and total caloric daily intake which might be affected by current smoking. Further studies of CAD risk factors, their predictive capacity, heritability estimates, and the degree of which they are amenable to treatment are actually needed.
Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi,
Mohamed Abo Bakr Baslama,
Ammar Abdallah Attar,
Mohamed Mohamed Khereldeen,
Relation Between Nutritional Risk Factors and Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers and Non-Smokers Resident in Jeddah Governorate, Saudi Arabia, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 375-383.
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