Knowledge on Vitamin A Rich Foods among Mothers of Preschool Children in Nepal: Impacts on Public Health and Policy Concerns
"This study investigated the association of some socio-demographic, attitude, service availability and info-communication factors with the knowledge on vitamin A rich foods among mothers of preschool children in Nepal with its impacts on public health and policy concerns. The analyses demonstrated that about 71% of mothers were the Hindus ethnic group and 67% lived in nuclear family. A half of the child bearing aged mothers (51%) had higher secondary education with nearly 91% of the mothers were aware of vitamin A rich foods. A majority of mothers (53%) were in workforce and 65% of them had monthly family income above 10,000 Rupees with a good economic status. Almost 91% of the respondents’ mothers grew vitamin A rich foods in their kitchen gardens and took it in their daily meal as diet. An estimate of 93% mothers attendeda health centre with their children during the vitamin A supplementation campaign. About79% mothers reported that they knew about the first visible symptoms of vitamin A deficiency disorder (VADD) and 95% mothers knew about the night blindness. The findings revealed that in Nepal knowledge on vitamin A rich foods among mother’s of pre-school children is widely increasing, and in a particular community VADD has estimated as 9% while at the national level its real magnitude is still high at 24%. When the prevalence of VADD has been in a decreasing trend at local level communities then the overall rate also drops at the national level. Bivariate analysis showed that the three selected factors such as mother’s education levels, mother’s occupations, and monthly family income were significantly and positively associated with the mother’s knowledge on vitamin A rich foods in diet, VADD curable and include green leafy vegetable and yellow fruits in diet.As these significant factors are directly influencing the level of awareness and practice of consuming vitamin A rich foods, efforts from the government and non-government organisations are needed to improve the overall conditions of mothers and allied public policy concerns in Nepal. "
Knowledge on Vitamin A Rich Foods among Mothers of Preschool Children in Nepal: Impacts on Public Health and Policy Concerns, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2014, pp. 316-322.
ACC/SCN. (1997), Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation. ACC/SCN, Geneva.
Arlappa, N., Laxmaiah, A., Balakrishna, N., Harikumar, R. andBrahmam, G.N.V. (2008), Clinical and sub-clinical vitamin A deficiency among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra, India, 35(6): 606-614.
Asrat, Y.T., Omwega, A.M., and Muita, J.W. (2002), Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school-aged children in Arssi Zone, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 79(7): 355-9.
Bloem, M.W., Matzger, H. and Huq, N. (1995), Vitamin A deficiency among women in the reproductive years: an ignored problem, In: Two Decades of Progress: Linking Knowledge to Action. Report of the XVI International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting, Chiang Rai, Thailand, Washington DC, p. 78.
Christian, P., West, J.K.P., Khatry, S.K., Katz, J., Shrestha, S.R., Pradhan, E.K., LeClerq, S.C. and Pokhrel, R.P. (1998b), Night blindness of pregnancy in rural Nepal—nutritional and health risks, International Journal of Epidemiology, 27(2): 231–237.
de Pee, S., West, C.E., Karyadi, M.D. and Hautvast, J.G. (1995), Lack of improvement in vitamin A status with increased consumption of dark-green leafy vegetables, Lancet, 346 (8967): 75-81.
James, P., Norum, R.K., Smitasiri, S., Swaminathan, S.M., Tagwireyi, J., Uauy, R. and Haq, M (2000), Ending malnutrition by 2020: An agenda for change in the millennium, Final Report to the ACC/SCN by the Commission on the Nutrition Challenges of the 21st Century, UNSCN/ACC/SCN, Geneva, pp. 1-112.
Kassaye, T., Receveur, O., John, T. and Becklake, M.R. (2001), Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school-aged children in Arssi Zone, Ethiopia, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79(3): 415–422.
Katz, J., Khatri, S,K., West, K.P., Humphrey, J.H., Leclerq, s.C., Pradhan, E.K., Pokhrel, R.P. and Sommer, A. (1995), Night blindness is prevalent during pregnancy and lactation in rural Nepal. The journal of Nutrition, 125(10): 2122-2127.
Kothari, G., Bhattacharjee, L. and Marathe, M. (2001), Food acceptance and selection: Activities for promoting pro-vitamin A foods among young children in urban slums, Community Eye Health, 14(37): 11–12.
Megabiaw, B. and Rahman, A. (2013), Prevalence and determinants of chronic malnutrition among under-5 children in Ethiopia. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition, 2(3): 230-236.
Mills J.P., Mills, T.A. and Reicks, M. (2007), Caregiver knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding vitamin A intake by Dominican children, Maternal and Child Nutrition, 3(1): 58-68.
NDHS. (2011), Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.
Rahman, A. and Biswas, S.C. (2009), Nutritional status of under-5 children in Bangladesh, South Asian Journal of Population and Health 2(1), pp. 1-11.
Rahman, A. and Chowdhury, S. (2007), Determinants of chronic malnutrition among preschool children in Bangladesh, Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(2), pp.161-173.
Rahman, A. and Harding, A. (2011), Social and health costs of tobacco smoking in Australia: Level, trend and determinants, International Journal of Statistics and Systems, 6(4), pp. 375-387.
Rahman, A. and Harding, A. (2013), Prevalence of overweight and obesity epidemic in Australia: some causes and consequences, JP Journal of Biostatistics, 10(1), pp. 31-48.
Rahman, A. and Harding, A. (2014), Spatial analysis of housing stress estimation in Australia with statistical validation, Australasian Journal of Regional Studies 20(3), pp. (in press).
Rahman, A. and Kuddus, A. (2014), A new model to study on physical behaviour among susceptible infective removal population, Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, (in press).
Rahman, A., Chowdhury, S., and Hossain, D. (2009), Acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children: levels and determinants, Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 21(3), pp. 294-302.
Rahman, A., Chowdhury, S., Karim, A. and Ahmed, S. (2008), Factors associated with nutritional status of children in Bangladesh: A multivariate analysis, Demography India, 37(1), pp. 95-109.
Rahman, A., Harding, A., Tanton, R. and Liu, S. (2010), Methodological issues in spatial microsimulation modelling for small area estimation, The International Journal of Microsimulation 3(2), pp. 3-22.
Rahman, A., Harding, A., Tanton, R. and Liu, S. (2013), Simulating the characteristics of populations at the small area level: New validation techniques for a spatial microsimulation model in Australia, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 57(1), pp. 149-165.
Sally, B., Gormez, A., Rahman, A., and colleagues (2012), Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: Analysis of a national census of 5 year olds in Australia, BMJ Open, 2(5):e001075, pp. 1-15.
Semba, R.D., de Pee, S., Sun, K, Bloem, M.W. andRaju, V.K.( 2010), The role of expanded coverage of the national vitamin A program in preventing morbidity and mortality among preschool children in India, The Journal of Nutrition, 140(1): 208s–212s.
UNICEF. (1997), Malnutrition in South Asia: A regional profile. Kathmandu: UNICEF - Regional Office of South Asia, p. 189 (ROSA Publication no: 5)
WHO. (1996), Indicators for assessing vitamin A deﬁciency and their application in monitoring and evaluating intervention programmes, WHO/NUT/96.10, World Health Organization, Geneva.
WHO. (2002), The world health report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life, WHO publication, Geneva, p 55.