Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 45-48
Received: Jul. 17, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 9, 2018;
Published: Sep. 11, 2018
Views 1144 Downloads 149
Kidist Hailu Demeke, Department of Food Science and Nutrition Program, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Head Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Maize is a predominant staple crop in sub-saharan Africa. Ethiopia is among the major maize producers in Africa and ranked third next to South Africa and Nigeria. The per capita consumption of maize in Ethiopia is about 60 kg per annum. Maize is an important crop to many African countries contributing to a significant daily energy intake. In addition to serving as a critical source of macro- and micronutrients, maize is also a rich source of many phytochemicals including carotenoid. However, there is limited information about the nutritional content of the different maize varieties growing in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to compare nutritional composition among six yellow maize varieties and one selected white maize variety cultivated in Ethiopia. Maize varieties were collected from Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute, Melkasa and Bako center. Proximate and mineral composition analysis was carried out using AOAC method. Total carotenoid level was investigated by UV Spectrophotometer. Proximate composition of maize varieties revealed in the range of moisture content (9.42 - 11.45%), total ash (1.37 - 1.74%), crude fat (5.13 - 7.22%), crude protein (9.69 - 15.30%), crude fiber (1.62 - 3.45%), carbohydrate (62.13 - 69.99%) and Energy (365.93 to 385.82 kal/100g). The mineral content ranged for Fe, Zn and Ca was 2.34 - 3.73 mg/100g, 2.31 - 2.93 mg/100g and 31.25 - 48.1mg/100g respectively. The minimum total carotenoid in the yellow maize varieties was 11.43 (Melkassa 7) and the maximum was 27.62 μg/g (Melkassa 1q). No carotenoid was detected in the white maize variety (BH 660). There was significant difference (P<0.05) among maize varieties in total carotenoid. Yellow maize varieties contain high amount of carotenoid than white maize varieties. Promotion of yellow maize varieties is vital to enhance antioxidant intake that reduce risk of diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer without altering intake of other nutrients.
Kidist Hailu Demeke,
Nutritional Quality Evaluation of Seven Maize Varieties Grown in Ethiopia, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 45-48.
Abdo E. M., Barbary O. M. and Shaltout O. E (2013). Chemical analysis of BT corn “Mon810: Ajeeb-YG” and its counterpart non-Bt corn “Ajeeb”. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 4; 55-60.
Adom, K. K. and Liu R. H. (2002). Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50; 6182–6187.
Ali M., Ali W., Ahmed S., Ullah I.,(2008). Mineral composition quality and physic-chemical parameters of the local Tallow Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of nutrition, 7; 717-720.
AOAC (2005), American Official Chemist Method, Washington, USA.
Bhupender K. et al (2012) Maize biology: An introduction. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Technical bulletin.
Dewanto. V., Wu, X. Z., Liu, R. H. (2002) Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 50; 4959– 4964.
Dixon B. M. (2000) Genetic variation in total carotene, iron, and zinc contents of maize and cassava genotypes, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 21; 419-422.
Egesel, C. O., J. C. Wong R. J. Lambert, and T. Rocheford. (2003). Combining ability of maize inbreds for carotenoids and tocopherols. Crop Science, 43; 818–823.
Fageer A. S. M, Tinay A. H. E (2004). Effect of genotype, malt pretreatment and cooking on in vitro protein digestibility and protein function of corn. Food chemistry, 84; 613-619.
(FAO) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2012), http://faostat3.fao.org.
Fardet A., Rock E. and Remesy C. (2008). Is the in vitro antioxidant potential of whole-grain cereals and cereal products well reflected in vivo? Journal of Cereal Science, 48; 258-276.
Hoopen T. and Maiga A. (2012). Maize production and processing. Cameroon.
Ijabadeniyi, A. O. and Adebolu, T. T. (2005). The effect of processing methods on the nutritional properties of ogi produced from three maize varieties. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 3; 108-109.
Kumar U. and Kweera B. (2014). Comparative analysis of nutritional value and aflatoxin level of maize grain from different site of Rajasthan. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 2; 333-335.
McKevith B. (2004). Nutritional aspects of cereals. British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin, 29; 111–142.
Menkir A., White W. S., Maziya-Dixon B., Rocheford T., Weiping L., 2008. Carotenoid diversity in tropical adapted yellow maize inbred lines. Food chemistry, 109; 521-529.
Mosisa W., Legesse W., BirhanuT., Girma D., Girum A., Wende A., Tolera K., Gezahegn B.(2011). Status and future direction of maize research and production in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Third National Maize Workshop of Ethiopia, 18-20 April 2011 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (pp. 17-23). Addis Ababa: EARO (Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization) and CIMMYT (International and wheat Improvement Center).
Ndukwe O. K., Edeoga H. O., Omosun G. (2015). Varietal differences in some nutritional composition of ten maize (Zea mays L.) varieties grown in Nigeria. International journal of academic research and reflection, 5; 1-11.
Queiroz V. P., Guimaraes P. E., Queiroz L. R., Guedes E. D., Vasconclos V. D., Guimaraes L. J., Ribeiro P. E. and Schaffer R. E. (2011). Iron and zinc availability in maize line, 31; 577-583.
Rios A. R., Paes M. C., Cardoso W. S., Borem A., Teixeira F. (2014). Color of corn grains and carotenoid profile of importance for human health. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5; 857-862.
Rodriguez-Amaya D. R. and Kimura M. (2004). Harvestplus handbook for carotenoid analysis. HarvestPlus Technical Monograph, Washington, DC.
Safawo T., Senthi N., Raveendran M., Vellaikumar S. Ganesan K. N., Nallarhambi G., Saranya S., Shobrana V. G., Abirami B. and Gowri E. V. (2010). Exploitation of natural variability in maize for β-Carotene content using HPLC and gene specific markers. Journal of Plant Breeding, 1; 548-555.
Ullah I., Ali M. and Farooqi A. (2010). Chemical and nutritional properties of some maize (Zea mays L.) varieties grown in NWFP, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9; 1113-1117.
Yeung D. L. and Laquatra I. (2003). Heinz Handbook of Nutrition. 9th Edition, H. J., Heinz Company.