Effects of Pharmaceutical Effluents on the Chemical. Composition of Various Vegetables in Sahiwal Region Punjab, Pakistan
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 45-50
Received: Jan. 2, 2020; Accepted: Feb. 27, 2020; Published: May 28, 2020
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Authors
Muhammad Nasir Javed, Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Sami Ullah, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Abid Ali, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Zeshan, Department of Chemistry, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Kanwal Shehzadi, Department of Chemistary Govt.Post Graduate College Samnabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Khalid, Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of toxic metals such as Lead (pb), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Cadmium (Cd) in pharmaceutical effluents, agricultural soil and vegetables (Pumpkin, Green Chilli and Spinach) in Sahiwal Region, Punjab, Pakistan, where many pharmaceutical industries producing effluents that contain toxic metals, reagents, organic compounds and catalyst. These pharmaceutical effluents are being used for irrigation purpose. Different samples of efflents, soil and vegitables analysed. Though the detected amounts are exceeded from WHO irrigation limits in water samples other than zinc. The analysis of soil sample showed that All metals were exceeding the controlled sample and WHO limits. The testing in vegetables samples showed that all the metals exceeded the permissible limit other than Fe and it was concluded that agricultural soil and vegetables of small industrial estate area of Sahiwal region were contaminated by increasing concentration of toxic metals due to untreated pharmaceutical effluents. There is a need of regular monitoring of pharmaceutiocal effluents enterimg into irrigation water sources in order to save quality of vegatables and health hazards.
Keywords
Pharmaceutical Effluents, Soil, Vegetables, Toxic Metals
To cite this article
Muhammad Nasir Javed, Sami Ullah, Abid Ali, Muhammad Zeshan, Kanwal Shehzadi, Muhammad Khalid, Effects of Pharmaceutical Effluents on the Chemical. Composition of Various Vegetables in Sahiwal Region Punjab, Pakistan, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 45-50. doi: 10.11648/j.cbe.20200502.11
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Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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