Determination of Quality Parameters of Honey from Taraba State – Nigeria
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-9
Received: Sep. 8, 2018; Accepted: Sep. 30, 2018; Published: May 7, 2019
Views 59      Downloads 15
Tanko Bako, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Ezekiel Ambo Mamai, Department of Soil Science and Land Resource Management, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Boman James Bature, Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality parameters of honey samplescollected from different locations in Taraba State, in terms of physicochemical properties such as colour, specific gravity, refractive index, viscosity, moisture content, ash content, free acidity, lactone acidity, total acidity, pH value, electrical conductivity, sugar content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, diastase activity and protein content. The results showed that mean values of honey temperature ranges from29.4± 0.49 to 38.5± 0.27°C; colour, light amber to dark amber; specific gravity, 1.30±0.01 to 1.48±0.01; refractive index, 1.47±0.01 to 1.50±0.02; viscosity, 23.2±0.10 to 34.2±0.10 Pas; moisture content, 11.27±0.01 to 19.70±0.01%; ash content, 0.14±0.01 to 0.52±0.04%; free acidity, 14.86±0.03 to 32.74±0.01 meqkg-1; lactone acidity, 1.58±0.01 to 3.71±0.03meqkg-1; total acidity, 16.44±0.03 to 35.52±0.01 meqkg-1;pH value, 3.67±0.02 to 5.10±0.19; electrical conductivity, 0.08±0.01 to 0.48±0.02 mScm-1; total reducing sugar content, 74.30±0.03 to 82.30±0.04%; sucrose content, 3.58±0.02 to 4.71 ±0.02%; hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, 10.51±0.04to 14.31±0.02 mgkg-1; diastase activity, 23.20±0.02 to 26.46±0.02 Go and protein content, 0.74±0.01 to 0.85±0.01%. The quality parameters were subjected to a one way ANOVA at p ≤ 0.05. There were significant differences in the colour, specific gravity, viscosity, moisture content, ash content, free acidity, lactone acidity, total acidity, pH value and electrical conductivity of the honey samples while refractive index, sugar content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, diastase activity and protein content showed no significant differences. A 2-tailed F-LSD test at 5% level of significance shows that the differences between the mean values are statistically significant for all the locations for temperature, viscosity, moisture content, free acidity, lactone acidity, total acidity and electrical conductivity of the honey samples while colour, specific gravity and ash content shows that the differences between themean values are statistically significant for most of the sample locations. The honey samples present a good level of quality because the physicochemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to codex standards) for all honey samples. It was indicated that honey from the area will be suitable for exportation when processed appropriately.
Honey, Physicochemical Properties, Quality Parameters, Taraba State
To cite this article
Tanko Bako, Ezekiel Ambo Mamai, Boman James Bature, Determination of Quality Parameters of Honey from Taraba State – Nigeria, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.cbe.20190401.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Roubik, D. W. (1989). Ecology and Natural History of Tropical Bees. New York: Cambrige University Press, pp. 195-210.
Codex Alimentarius (2001). Draft revised standard for honey (at step 10 of the codex procedure). Codex Alimentarius Commission, FAO, Rome Alinorm, 25: 19 – 26.
James, O. O., Mesubi, M. A., Usman, L. A., Yeye, S. O. and Ajanaku, K. O. (2009). Physi­cal characteristics of some honey samples from North-Central Nigeria. Interna­tional Journal of Physical Sciences, 4: 464 -470.
Funmilola, O. O., Oluwatosin, A. I. and Olayemi, B. O. (2014). Physicochemical properties of honey samples from Ondo state, Nigeria, and their bioactivity against spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12(3&4): 104 - 107.
Gheldof, N. and Engeseth, N. J. (2002). Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various flo­ral sources based on the determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(10): 3050-3055.
Sanz, M. L., Sanz, J. and Martinez, C. L. (2004). Presence of some cyclitols in honey. Journal of Food Chemistry, (84): 133-135.
Kumar, A., Gill, J. P. S., Bedi, J. S., Manav, M., Ansari, M. J. and Walia, G. S. (2018). Sensorial and physicochemical analysis of Indian honeys for assessment of quality and floral origins. Food Research International, 108: 571–583.
Omafuvbe, B. O. and Akanbi, O. O. (2009). Microbiological and physico-chemical prop­erties of some commercial Nigerian honey. African Journal of Microbiology Re­search, 3: 891–896.
Amril, A. and Ladjama, A. (2013). Physicochemical chara-cterization of some multifloral honeys from honeybees Apismelliferacollected in the Algerian northeast. African Journal of Food Science, 7(7): 168 – 173.
Escuredo, O., Seijo, M. and Fernandez-Gonzalez, M. (2011). Descriptive analysis of rubus honey from the north-west ofSpain. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46: 2329 – 2336.
Al-Habsi, N. and Niranjan, K. (2012). Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antimicrobial activity and quality of manuka honey. Food Chemistry, 135: 1448 – 1454.
Eleazu, C. O., Iroaganachi, M. A., Eleazu, K. C. and Okoronkwo, J. O. (2013). Determination of the physico-chemical composition, microbial quality and free radical scavenging activities of some commercially sold honey samples in Aba, Nigeria: The effect of varying colours. International Journal of Biomedical Research, 04(01): 32-41.
Terrab, A., Gonzalez, A. G. Diez, M. J. and Francisco, J. H. (2003). Characterization of Moroccan unifloral honeys using multivariate analysis. European Food Research and Technology, 218(1): 88-95.
Atrouse, O. M., Oran, S. A. and Al-Abbadi, S. Y. (2004). Chemical analysis and identification of pollen grains from different Jordanian honey samples. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39: 413-417.
Lawal, R. A, Lawal, A. K. and Adekalu, J. B. (2009). Physico-chemical Studies on Adulteration of Honey in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(15): 1080-1084.
Rahman, K., Hussain, A., Ullah, S. and Zai, I. U. M. (2013). Phytochemical Analysis and Chemical Composition of Different Branded and Unbranded Honey Samples. International Journal of Microbiological Research, 4 (2): 132-137.
Mato, I., Huidobro, J. F., Lozano, J. S. and Sancho, M. T. (2003). Significance of no-aromatic organic acids in honey. Journal of Food Protection, 66(12): 2371-2376.
Bogdanov, S., Haldimann, M., Luginbuhl, W. and Gallmann, P. (2007). Minerals in honey: environmental, geographical and botanical aspects. Journal of Apicultural Research, 46(4): 269-275.
Molan, P. C. (2001). Why honey is effective as a medicine. The scientific explanation of its effects. Bee World, 82(1): 22-40.
AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists International, 18th edition, Gathersburg, MD U.S.A Official methods. 2200 pp.
Downey, G., Hussey, K., Kelly, J. D., Walshe, T. F. and Martin, P. G. (2005). Preliminary contribution to the characterisation of artisanal honey produced on the island of Ireland by palynological and physico-chemical data. Food Chemistry, 91(2): 347-354.
Bertoncelj, J., Doberšek, U., Jamnik, M. and Golob, T. (2007). Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian honey. Food Chemistry, 105(2): 822-828.
Terrab, A., Gonzalez-Miret, L. and Heredia, F. J. (2004). Colour characterisation of thyme and avocado honeys by diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry and spectroradiometry. European Food Research and Technology, 218(5): 488-492.
Kamal, A., Raza, S., Rashid, N., Hameed, T., Gilani, M., Qureshi, M. A. and Nasim, K. (2002). Comparative study of honey collected from different flora of Pakistan. Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(9): 626–627.
Ouchemoukh, S., Louaileche, H. and Schweitzer, P. (2007). Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Algerian honeys. Food Control, 18(1): 52-58.
Basavarajappa, S., Raghunandan, K. S., and Hegde, S. N. (2011). Physico-biochemical analysis of multifloral honey of Apisdorsata Fab.(Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Southern Karnataka, India. Current Biotica, 5(2): 144–156.
Bath, K. P. and Singh, N. (1997). Quality Evaluation of Different types of Indian honey. Food Chemistry, 58(1 – 2): 129 – 133.
EU (2001). European Union Council: Council Directive (2001)/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. Official Journal of the European Community, 10: 47-52.
Adebiyi, F. M., Akpan, I., Obiajunwa, E. I. and Olaniyi, H. B. (2004). Chemical/physical characterization of Nigeria honey. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3(5): 278 – 281.
Oladipupo, M. D. and Isah, M. C. (2009). Physical and Chemical properties of some Nigerian honey collected in Kaduna State. The Nigerian Journal of Research and Production, 15(2): 1-7.
Gebremedhin, G., Tadesse, G. and Kebede, E. (2013). Physiochemical characteristics of honey obtained from traditional and modern hive production systems in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, 5: 115-128.
Zamora, M. C., Chirife, J. and Roldan, D. (2006). On the nature of the relationship between water activity and% moisture in honey. Food Control, 17(8): 642-647.
Finola, M. S., Lasagno, M. C. and Marioli, J. M. (2007). Microbiological and chemical characterization of honeys from central Argentina. Food Chemistry, 100(4): 1649-1653.
[Gobessa, S., Seifu, E. and Bezabih, A. (2012). Physicochemical properties of honey produced in the Homesha district of Western Ethiopia. Journal of Apicultural Science, 56: 33-40.
FAO (2009). A guide to the services provided by bees and the sustainable harvesting, processing and marketing of their products. Rome, Italy.
Gomes, S., Dias, L. G., Moreira, L. L., Rodrigues, P. and Estevinho, L. (2010). Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48: 544–548.
Azenedo, L., Azeredo, M., De Souza, S. and Dautra, L. (2003). Protein content and physiochemical properties in honey samples of ApisMelliferaof different floral origins. Food Chemistry, 80(2): 249 – 254.
Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Zaldivar-Cruz, J., Kuri, V., Juana Fernandez-Lopez. J., Carbonell-Barrachina, A. and Perez-Alvarez, J. (2010). Aroma profile and physico-chemical properties of artisanal honey from Tabasco, Mexico. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45: 1111 – 1118.
Nyau, V., Mwanza, P. and Moonga, B. (2013). Physico-chemical qualities of honey harvested from different beehive types in zambia. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 13(2): 7415 – 7427.
Marchini, L. C., Moretti, A. C., Otsuki, I. P. and Sodre, G.(2007). Physicochemical composition of Apismelliferahoney samples from Sao Paulo state, Brazil. QuimicaNova, 30: 1653-1657.
Nanda, V., Sarkar, B. C., Sharma, H. K. and Bawa, A. S. (2003). Physico-chemical properties and estimation of mineral content in honey produced from different plants in Northern India. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 16: 613–619.
Terrab, A., Diez, M. J. and Heredia, F. J. (2002). Characterisation of Moroccan unifloral honeys by their physicochemical characteristics. Food Chemistry, 79: 373-379.
Cantarelli, M. A., Pellerano, R. G., Marchevsky, E. J., Camina, J. M. (2008). Quality of honey from Argentina: study of chemical composition and trace elements. The Journal of the Argentine Chemical Society, 96(1-2): 33 – 41.
Buba, F., Gidado, A. and Shugaba, A. (2013). Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Honey from North East Nigeria. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry, 2(4): 1-7.
Silva, L. R., Videira, R., Monteiro, A. P., Valentao, P. and Andrade, P. B. (2009). Honey from Luso region (Portugal): Physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents. Microchemical Journal, 93: 73-77.
Zappala, M., Fallico, B., Arena, E. and Verzera, A. (2005). Methods for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey: a comparison. Food Control, 16: 273-277.
Smanalieva, J. and Senge, B.(2009). Analytical and rheological investigations into selected unifloral German honey. European Food Research and Technology, 229: 107-113.
Piazza, M. G., Accorti, M. and Persano-Oddo, L. (1991). Electrical conductivity, ash, colour and specific rotatory power in Italian unifloral honeys. Apicoltura, 7: 51– 63.
EEC (1974). Council directive of 22 July 1974 on the harmonization of the laws of the member states relating to honey. Official Journal of European Communities, L221: 10-14.
Meda, A., Lamien, C. E., Romito, M., Millogo, J. andNacoulma, O. G. (2005). Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid andproline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as theirradical scavenging activiity. Food Chemistry, 91:571-577.
Furkan Y. M. and Gumus, T. (2010). Some physico‐chemical characteristics of honeys produced from sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L.). International journal of food science and technology, 45 (4): 707-712.
Feas, X., Pires, J., Estevinho, M. L., Iglesias, A. and De-Araujo, J. P. P. (2010). Palynological and physicochemical data characterisation of honeys produced in the Entre‐Douro e Minho region of Portugal. International journal of food science and technology, 45 (6): 1255-1262.
Bogdanov, S., Lullman, C., Martin, P., Von der Ohe, W., Russman, H. and Vorwohl, G. (1999). Honey quality and international regulatory standards: Review by the International Honey Commission. Mitteilungenaus Leben smitte lunter suchun gund Hygiene, 90:108-125.
Saxena, S., Gautam, S. and Sharma, A. (2010). Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chemistry, 118: 391-397.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186