American Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 74-83
Received: Jan. 29, 2017;
Accepted: Feb. 23, 2017;
Published: Oct. 24, 2017
Views 1437 Downloads 57
Rabia Jahangir, Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Institute of Tropical Medicine & Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Kariuki Ndungu, Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, Biotechnology Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Joseph Nganga, Institute of Tropical Medicine & Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Damaris Muhia, Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Robert Mugambi, Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Geoffrey Ngae, Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, Kenya Food Crop Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Grace Murilla, Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, Biotechnology Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Robert Karanja, Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Pre-clinical transmission assays are essential for proof-of-concept for transmission blocking strategies but are hazardous to laboratory personnel and animal hosts as it entails exposure of live rodents to infected vectors. Conventional transmission assay methods include the use of anesthesia (associated with undesired side effects). In addition, animal handlers risk being bitten by experimental animals and vectors during anesthesia due to a lack of safe and effective alternatives. Robustness of rodent to vector transmission was determined by comparing the number of oocysts. Vector-to-rodent transmission was determined by measuring parasitemia, gametocytemia, changes in body weight and survival time. A completely randomized design was used in this study. Rodent-to-vector transmission was analyzed by log linear model. Fecundity, gametocytemia, parasitaemia and changes in body weight were analyzed by regression analysis. Survival times were analyzed Kaplan-Meier method for determination of survival distribution function. Rank test of homogeneity were used to determine the effect of restraining method infection on survival times. There was no significant difference (p<0.001) in fecundity of mosquitoes fed on anesthetized mice; 122±22.1 eggs compared to INFECTRA®-Kit group with 110±14.1 eggs. Oocyst production increased gradually though not significantly (p<0.001) in both groups of mice with the number of mosquitoes. The INFECTRA®-Kit group increased from 2.7%±0.3 (1 mosquito) to 9.3%±0.3 (6 mosquitoes), the conventional group was 3.7%±0.3 to 8.6%±0.3 (6 mosquitoes). Parasitemia progression was characterized by two waves in INFECTRA®-Kit and three waves in the conventional group. The highest parasitaemia peak was 22% attained on 22dpi for the INFECTRA®-Kit and 17.8% attained on 26 dpi for the conventional group. Gametocytes were detected on 16 dpi in both groups and thereafter increased significantly (p<0.001) with dpi. In the INFECTRA®-Kit group, gametocytemia was represented by two oscillations while the conventional group was three cycles with peak gametocytes increasing with each subsequent peak. Disease progression was higher and survival times shorter with INFECTRA®-Kit than with anesthetized mice and there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the two methods in body weight and gametocytemia. INFECTRA®-Kit is equivalent to that of anesthesia method but more advantageous given the more ethical and humane treatment of animals.
Validation of the Infectra®-Kit in Malaria Transmission Studies Using Plasmodium Berghei, American Journal of Laboratory Medicine.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2017, pp. 74-83.
Bartoloni A., Zammarchi L., (2012). “Clinical aspects of uncomplicated and severe malaria” Mediterranean J of Hematology and Inf Diseases 4 (1): e2012026.
World Health Organization (2012) “World Malaria Report 2012” www.who.int/malaria
Sinclair D, (2012), Donegan S, Isba R, Lalloo DG. “Artesunate versus quinine for treating severe malaria” Cochrane Database Systemat Rev. 2012; 6 CD005967.
Nadjm B, Behrens R. H., (2012). “Malaria: An update for physicians.” Infect Diseases Clinics of North America 26 (2): 243-59.
Birkett AJ, Moorthy VS, Loucq C, Chitnis CE, Kaslow DC. “Malaria vaccine R&D in the Decade of Vaccines: breakthroughs, challenges and opportunities.” Vaccine. 2013 Apr 18; 31 Suppl 2: B233-43. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.040.
Nunes JK (2014), Woods C, Carter T, Raphael T, Morin MJ, Diallo D, Leboulleux D, Jain S, Loucq C, Kaslow DC, Birkett AJ. “Development of a transmission-blocking malaria vaccine: progress, challenges, and the path forward.” Vaccine. 2014 Sep 29; 32 (43): 5531-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.030. Epub 2014 Jul 29.
Greenwood BM (2008), Fidock DA, Kyle DE, Kappe SH, Alonso PL, Collins FH, Duffy PE. “Malaria: progress, perils, and prospects for eradication.” J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr. 118 (4): 1266-76.
Ozwara, S. H. (2003), Langermans, J. A., Maamun, J., Farah, I. O., Yole D. S. Mwenda, J. M., Weiler, H. and Thomas, A. W. “Experimental infection of the olive baboon (Papio Anubis) with Plasmodium knowlesi: severe disease accompanied by cerebral involvement.” American Journal of Trop Med and Hyg. 69: 188-194.
Vaughan AM, (2012) Kappe SH, Ploss A, Mikolajczak SA. “Development of humanized mouse models to study human malaria parasite infection.” Future microbiology. 2012; 7 (5): 10.2217/fmb.12.27. doi: 10.2217/fmb.12.27
Carter and Diggs (1977). In: “Parasitic Protozoa” Vol. 3: p. 359-465. Academic Press, NY.
Blagborough AM., T. S. ChurcherL. M. Upton, A. C. Ghani, P. W. Gething & R. E. Sinden Transmission-blocking interventions eliminate malaria from laboratory populations. Nature Communications 4. Article number: 1812 doi: 10.1038/ncomms2840, 2013.
Darcy L. Medica and Photini Sinnis. “Quantitative Dynamics of Plasmodium yoelii Sporozoite Transmission by Infected Anopheline Mosquitoes” Infect Immun. 2005 Jul; 73 (7): 4363–4369. doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.7.4363-4369.2005
Palme R. (2005) “Measuring fecal steroids: guidelines for practical application.” Annals of the New York Acad of Sciences [Internet], [cited 2015 Jan 4]; 1046: 75–80. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16055844
Tanaka H., Igarashi T., Lefor A. T., Kobayashi E. (2009). “The effects of fasting and general anesthesia on serum chemistries in KCG miniature pigs” J American Assoc. for Lab Animal Science: JAALAS [Internet], [cited 2015 Jan 4]; 48 (1): 33–8. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2694709&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
Jewell, Z. C. & Alibhai, S. K. (2010) “Ethics and the Immobilization of animals” In the Encyclopedia of Animal rights and welfare. (2nd Ed.) Vol. 1: 260-265 Greenwood Press.
Arnemo Jon M. & Caulkett, N., (2008). “Stress in Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia” Chapter 8: Doi: 10.1002/9780470376478.ch8
Secundino N. F. C. (2012), Freitas, V. C., Monteiro, C. C., Pires, A. A. M., David, B. A., Pimenta, P. F. P. “The transmission of Leishmaniainfantumchagasi by the bite of the Lutzomyialongipalpis to two different vertebrates” Parasit. Vectors 5, 20.
Caljon, G., Van D. A. J., De, R. K., De, B. P., Coosemans, M. (2010) “Trypanosomabrucei modifies the tsetse salivary composition, altering the fly feeding behavior that favors parasite transmission” PLoSPathog. 6 (6), e1000926.
Kibugu, J. K., Kiragu, J. M., Mumba, A. M., Mwangangi, D. M., Muchiri, M. W. (2010). “Improved protocol for aseptic collection and handling procedures of bovine blood diet in areas with special contamination challenges for use in tsetse rearing” Lab. Anim. 44, 281–282.
Feldmann, U. (1994) “Some quality control parameters used in rearing of tsetse flies” In: Ochieng’- Odero, J. R. P. (Ed.), Techniques of Insect Rearing for Development of Integrated Pest and Vector Management Strategies. Vol. 1. 16th March - 3rd April 1992 Nairobi, Kenya. ICIPE Science Press, p. 15–29.
Wheler, C., Nelles, P., Schueller, N., Hudy, C., (2010). “In: Rodent Anesthesia Wetlab 26th Annual Conference and Trade Show.” Saskatchewan Assoc. of Vet Technologists Inc., Nov5–7, Saskatoon.
Ndung'u, K., (2013), Kibugu J. K., Gitonga P. K., Thuita J. K., Auma J. E., Gitonga S. K., Ngae G. N., Murilla G. A. "Infectra®-kit: a device for restraining mice and confining tsetse flies during trypanosome infection transmission experiments."Acta Tropica, 126 (2). doi: 10.1016/i.actatropica 2013.02.006
Okoth, S. O., Kokwaro, E. D., Kiragu, J. M., Murilla, G., (2006). “Susceptibility and transmissibility of capacity off sub populations of Glossina pallidipes to Human infective Trypanosomes brucei rhodesiense.” Trends Med. Res. 1, 75–85.
Coleman. J., Jennifer Juhn and Anthony A. James “Dissection of Midgut and Salivary Glands from Ae. aegypti Mosquitoes” J Vis Exp. 2007; (5): 228. Published online 2007 Jul 4. doi: 10.3791/228
Malaria Working Party of the General Haematology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (1997). “The laboratory diagnosis of malaria.” Clin Lab Haematol. 19 (3): 165-170.
Thahsin Farjana (2013), Nobuko Tuno. “Multiple Blood Feeding and Host-Seeking Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)” Journal of med Entomol. Volume 50; Issue 4: 838-846.
Edith, Lyimo & Takken W. (1993) “Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania” Med and Vet Entomol. Volume 7: Issue 4, 328–332
Lyimo L. Issa (2012), Daniel T. Haydon, Kasian F. Mbina, Ally A. Daraja, Edgar M. Mbehela, Richard Reeve, Heather M. Ferguson. “The fitness of African malaria vectors in the presence and limitation of host behavior” Malar J. 2012; 11: 425. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-425
Dari F. Da (2015), Thomas S. Churcher, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Bienvenue Yaméogo, Ibrahim Sangaré, Jean Bosco, Ouedraogo, Robert E. Sinden, Andrew M. Blagborough, Anna Cohuet. “Experimental study of the relationship between Plasmodium gametocyte density and infection success in mosquitoes; implications for the evaluation of malaria transmission-reducing interventions” Experimental Parasitology. Vol. 149: 74–83
Buckling, A. &Read A. F. ‘the effect of partial host immunity on the transmission of malaria parasites. ProcBiol Sci. 2001 Nov 22; 268 (1483): 2325–2330. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2001.1808
Bousema T., Drakeley C. “Epidemiology and infectivity of P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocytes in relation to malaria control and elimination.”Clin Microbiol. Rev. 2011, 24: 377-410.
Heather &Andrew F. Read (2004). “Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts.” Malar J. 2004; 3: 12. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-12
Yamei Jin, Chahnaz Kebaier and Jerome Vanderberg (2007) “Direct Microscopic Quantification of Dynamics of Plasmodiumberghei Sporozoite Transmission from Mosquitoes to Mice” Infection and immunity. Nov. 2007, p. 5532–5539 Vol. 75, No. 11 0019-9567/07/$08.000 doi: 10.1128/IAI.00600-07
Basir R.(2012), Fazalul Rahman S. S., Hasballah K., Chong W. C., Talib H., Yam M. F, Jabbarzare M., Tie T. H., Othman F., Moklas M. A. M., Abdullah W. O., and Ahmad Z. “Plasmodiumberghei ANKA Infection in ICR Mice as a Model of Cerebral Malaria”Iran J Parasitol. 2012; 7 (4): 62–74.
Lenhardt R. (2010) “The effect of anesthesia on body temperature control” Front Biosci. (Schol. Ed).2: 1145-54.
Sessler I. Daniel (2009) “Temperature Monitoring and Perioperative Thermoregulation Anesthesiology” 2008 Aug; 109 (2): 318–338.doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31817f6d76
McQuistion TE. (1979) “Effect of temperature and clofibrate on Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.” Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979 Jan; 28 (1): 12-4.
JannHau& Steven J. Schapiro (2014). Hand book of laboratory animal sciences Vol. II Animal models 3rd Edition. April 22, 2011 by CRC Press. ISBN 978420084573 – CAT# 84577.https://www.crcpress.com/Handbook-of-Laboratory-Animal-Sciences-Volume-II-Third-Edition-Animal/Hau-Schapiro/p/book/9781420084573
Evered, D. & Julie Whelan (1983). “Malaria and the red cell” Retrieved from online library. wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470715444.fmatter/pdf
Mcgee R., Peter Power, Peter Golus. “Long-term effects of sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia on novelty-induced behaviours” Physiological Psychology 1981, Vol. 9, (4), 364-366
Rondeau D. B., Jolicoeur, F. B., Kachanoff, R., Scherzer, P., & Wayner, M. J. “Effects of phenobarbital on ethanol in-take in fluid deprived rats.” Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 1975, 3, 493-497.
Masumu J. (2009), Marcotty T., Geerts S., Vercruysse and J., Van den Bossche P. “Cross-protection between Trypanosomacongolense strains of low and high virulence” Vet Parasitol. 2009 Jul 7; 163 (1-2): 127–131. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.04.006
Hoff, J., (2000). “Methods of blood collection in the mouse” Lab. Anim. 29 (10), 47–53.
Loder, P. M. J. (1997) “Size of blood meals taken by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) correlates with fat reserves” Bull. Entomol. Res. 87: 547–549.
Murdoch University (2010). “Blood collection recommendations for Murdoch University Research and Teaching Projects” www.research.murdoch.edu.au/ethics/arec/BloodSop.rtf (accessed 18.03.15).
Amole, B. O., Clarkson, A. B., Shear, H. L., (1982). “Pathogenesis of anaemia in Trypanosomabrucei- infected mice” Infect. Immun.36 (3): 1060–1068.