Effects of Long-Term Simulated Microgravity on Oxidant and Antioxidant Values in the Plasma and Lung Tissues of Rhesus Macaque
American Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 1-6
Received: Aug. 14, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 14, 2016; Published: Jan. 18, 2017
Views 2939      Downloads 96
Yang Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China
Ping Wang, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China
Chongyu Xu, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China
Yiling Cai, Department of Neurology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China
Huasong Ma, Department of Orthopedic, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study evaluated the influence of long-term simulated microgravity on oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the plasma and lung tissues of rhesus macaque (-10℃ head-down tilting). Fifteen healthy male rhesus macaques were randomly divided into groups 1 (control, n=5), groups 2 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks, n=5) and groups 3 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks and recover from 4 weeks, n=5). Oxidative stress was evaluated by critical SOD, GSH, H2O2 in plasma and SOD, GSH in lung tissues. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological structure changes of pulmonary tissues. CAT, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, GPX1, GPX4, GPX7, PRDX1, HMOX1, ALOX5 and DUOX1 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. GSH concentration was significantly decreased, whereas H2O2 level was significantly increased in group 2 compared with group 1 and group 3. Compared to group 1, histopathological examination revealed alveolar septal thickening, and alveolar and interstitial lymphocytic infiltration in group 2 and group 3 and the pathological changes in group 3 were smaller than those in group 2. Group 2 and group 3 showed significant up-regulation of SOD3 gene compared with group 1 by real-time PCR. In a long-term simulated microgravity environment, systemic antioxidant level of GSH was reduced but an oxidative stress marker of H2O2 was increased. Meanwhile, long-term simulated microgravity caused lung injury and induced the mRNA of SOD3 expression in lung tissues. But oxidant stress is not a major factor involved in the development of lung damage under simulated microgravity. Further study still clarifies the mechanism about the lung injury under microgravity.
Simulated Microgravity, Oxidative Stress, GSH, H2O2
To cite this article
Yang Chen, Ping Wang, Chongyu Xu, Yiling Cai, Huasong Ma, Effects of Long-Term Simulated Microgravity on Oxidant and Antioxidant Values in the Plasma and Lung Tissues of Rhesus Macaque, American Journal of Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20170201.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hughes-Fulford M. Altered cell function in microgravity. Exp Gerontol. 1991, 26: 247-256.
Arbeille P, Provost R, Zuj K., Vincent N. Measurements of jugular, portal, femoral, and calf vein cross-sectional area for the assessment of venous blood redistribution with long duration spaceflight (Vessel Imaging Experiment). Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015, 115: 2099-2106.
Liu Z, Wan Y, Zhang L, Tian Y, Lv K, Li Y, Wang C, Chen X, Chen S, Guo J. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission. Life Sci Space Res (Amst). 2015, 4: 62-22.
Paiva M, Estenne M, Engel LA. Lung volumes, chest wall configuration, and pattern of breathing in microgravity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1989, 67: 1542-1550.
McCarthy I, Goodship A, Herzog R, Oganov V, Stussi E, Vahlensieck M. Investigation of bone changes in microgravity during long and short duration space flight: comparison of techniques. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000, 30: 1044-1054.
Aubert AE, Beckers F, Verheyden B. Cardiovascular function and basics of physiology in microgravity. Acla Cardiol. 2005, 60: 129-151.
Alessandri N, Petrassi M, Tufano F, Dei Giudici A, De Angelis S, Urciuoli F, Alessandri C, De Angelis C, Tomao E. Functional changes cardiovascular: normobaric activity and microgravity in young healthy human subjects. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012, 16: 310-315.
West JB. Microgravity and the lung. Physiologist. 1991, 34: s8-s10.
Prisk GK. Microgravity and the lung. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000, 89: 385-389.
Camhi SL, Lee P, Choi AM. The oxidative stress response. New Horiz. 1995, 3: 170-182.
Draeqer J, Hanke K. Postural variations of intraocular pressure-preflight experiments for the D1-mission. Ophthalmic Research. 1986, 18: 55-60.
Sonnenfeld G, Schaffar L, Schmitt DA, Peres C, Miller ES. The rhesus monkey as a model for testing the immunological effects of space flight. Adv Space Res. 1994, 14: 395-397.
Convertino VA, Koenig SC, Krotov VP, Fanton JW, Korolkov VI, Trambovetsky EV, Ewert DL, Truzhennikov A, Latham RD. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkeys. Acta Astronaut. 1998, 255-263.
Tang C, Niu Z, Zheng Y, Chen Y, Bao B, Meng Q. Effects of hypergravity exposure after 30-days simulated weightlessness on chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in lingual mucosa of rhesus macaque. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014, 94: 2525-2530.
Sies H. Role of metabolic H2O2 generation: redox signaling and oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2014, 289: 8735-8741.
McCord JM, Edeas MA. SOD, oxidative stress and human pathologies: a brief history and a future vision. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005; 59: 139-142.
Njâlsson R, Norgren S. Physiological and pathological aspects of GSH metabolism. Acta Paediatr. 2005, 94: 132-137.
Sandalio LM, RodrÍguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, del RÍo LA. Role of peroxisomes as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling molecules. Subcell Biochem. 2013, 69: 231-255.
Mailloux RJ. Teaching the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and the production and detection of reactive oxygen species. Redox Biol. 2015, 4: 381-398.
Kurata M, Suzuki M, Agar NS. Antioxidant systems and erythrocyte life-span in mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993, 106: 477-487.
Markin AA, Zhuravlëva OA. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats after a 14-day space flight in the “Space-2044” spacecraft. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1993, 27: 47-50.
Markin AA, Popova lA, Vetrova EG, Zhuravleva OA, Balashov OI. Lipid peroxidation and activity of diagnostically significant enzymes in cosmonauts after flights of various durations. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997, 31: 14-18.
Markin AA, Zhuravleva OA. Lipid peroxidation and indicators of antioxidant defence system in plasma and blood serum of rats during 14-day spaceflight on-board orbital laboratory “Spacelab-2”. Aviakosm Ekology Med. 1998, 32: 53-55.
Chen HL, Qu LN, Li QD, Bi L, Huang ZM, Li YH. Simulated microgravity-induced oxidative stress in different areas of rat brain. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2009, 61: 108-114.
Rai B, Kaur J, Catalina M, Anand SC, Jacobs R, Teughels W. Effect of simulated microgravity on salivary and serum oxidants, antioxidants, and periodontal status. J Periodontol. 2011, 82: 1478-1482.
Song Y, Ji B, Wang DS, Zhang H, Zhao BX, Xu Ys, Zhang P, Yang J, Huang YH, Liu YL, Ren XX, Zhu WL, Lu J. Effect of acupuncture at different time points on kidney function and oxygen free radical metabolism in rats with simulated weightlessness. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2014, 34: 1106-1110.
Wang J, Liu C, Li T, Wang Y, Wang D. Proteomic analysis of pulmonary tissue in tail-suspended rats under simulated weightlessness. J Proteomics. 2012, 75: 5244-5253.
Glenny RW, Lamm WJ, Bernard SL, An D, Chornuk M, Pool SL, Wagner WW Jr, Hlastala MP, Roberston HT. Selected contribution: redistribution of pulmonary perfusion during weightlessness and increased gravity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000, 89: 1239-1248.
Pei SJ, Zhu ML, Yi Y, Zhou JL, Xu BX, Wang P. Changes of anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae status in rats with simulated weightlessness. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2012, 35: 5515-519.
Landis GN, Tower J. Superoxide dismutase evolution and life span regultaion. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005, 126: 365-379.
Skrzycki M, Czeczot H. [Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD)--structure, properties and functions]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2004, 58: 301-311.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186