Cardiovascular Diseases and the Common Risk Factors Presented by Patients at Kitwe Teaching Hospital
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Oct. 23, 2018;
Accepted: May 7, 2019;
Published: Jun. 5, 2019
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Mwanza Josphat, Department of Public Health, Micheal Chilufya Sata School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, Ndola, Zambia
Sichilima Matafwali Alfred, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, such as cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney and peripheral arterial diseases. CVDs are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. A case-control study was conducted among 74 patients suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) at Kitwe Teaching Hospital (KTH) and 74 controls (patients without CVD). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding socio-demographics, risk factors of CVD and Knowledge based questions of CVD. Chi-square test was used to determine significant associations and a result yielding a p value of less than 5% was considered statistically significant. Independent factors associated with development of CVD were established using a Binary Logistic Regression. Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. The independent risk factors which were significantly associated with the development of CVD were hypertension (OR 59.143, 95% CI 20.122-173.833; AOR 97.289, 95% CI 24.479 -386.662), diabetes mellitus (OR 3.725, 95% CI 1.722 – 8.057; AOR 6.033, 95% CI 1.630 -22.332), family history (OR 2.504, 95% CI 1.242-5.050; AOR 0.862, 95% CI 0.244 -3.041), smoking (OR 1.587, 95% CI 0.731-3.448; AOR 0.746, 95% CI 0.164 -3.403), alcohol consumption (OR 1.387, 95% CI 0.725 -2.654; AOR 3.392, 95% CI 0.833 – 13.823), high blood cholesterol (OR 4.364, 95% CI 0.894 – 21.293; AOR 4.482, 95% CI 0.242- 82.888) and increased age (P value: 0.039). Three factor were significantly associated with reduced risk of developing CVD. These were physical activity (OR 0.575, 95% CI 0.287-1.150; AOR 1.849, 95% CI 0.507 – 6.751), balanced diet (OR 0.890, 95% CI 0.456 – 2.195; AOR 1.451, 95% CI 0.404 – 5.214) and regular weight check and control (OR 0.897, 95% CI 0.471 – 1.710; AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.177 – 1.990). Interventions such as proper control of hypertension and diabetes pharmacologically or non – pharmacologically, as well as providing health education on life style risk factors that are associated with CVD may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to the disease.
Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Cardiovascular Disease, Non-Communicable Disease
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Sichilima Matafwali Alfred,
Cardiovascular Diseases and the Common Risk Factors Presented by Patients at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Rehabilitation Science.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
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