Estimation of Ground Dwelling Arthropod Densities Using Pitfall Traps: Individual Based Simulations
Estimation of density of ground dwelling arthropods is important for pest monitoring, landscape restoration, biodiversity and conservation. Existing methods require high amount of time and labor. Considering recent catastrophic decline of invertebrates abundance less invasive methods should be developed. In current paper based on individual based simulations I suggest method for density estimation using pitfall traps. Method is based on “dig in effect”, when traps catch more individuals straight after installation then in following days. Simulation results demonstrated that density of abundant species can be estimated by proposed method with acceptable error range. Suggested method is best suitable for fast estimation of density of abundant species (>2 individuals/m2) or higher taxa, in a large homogeneous landscapes. It can be especially useful in biodiversity monitoring programs and for pest density estimation. Method is not suitable for a long term trapping or for estimation of density of low abundance species and surveying small or narrow habitats (ex. Littoral or riparian zone, edges of habitat). Method presented in current publication can be used for standardization of pitfall trapping and comparison of results from different habitats and periods. Method can be further improved by developing more easy and inexpensive ways of sampling and should be evaluated in the field.
Estimation of Ground Dwelling Arthropod Densities Using Pitfall Traps: Individual Based Simulations, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2020, pp. 1-5.
Hallmann, C. A., Sorg, M., Jongejans, E., Siepel, H., Hofland, N., Schwan, H.,... & Goulson, D. (2017). More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas. PloS one, 12 (10), e0185809.
McDonald, T., Gann, G., Jonson, J., & Dixon, K. (2016). International standards for the practice of ecological restoration–including principles and key concepts. (Society for Ecological Restoration: Washington, DC, USA.). Soil-Tec, Inc., © Marcel Huijser, Bethanie Walder.
Ruiz-Jaen, M. C., & Aide, T. M. (2005). Restoration success: how is it being measured? Restoration ecology, 13 (3), 569-577.
Southwood, T. R. E., & Henderson, P. A. (2009). Ecological methods. John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, G. R., & Matthews, I. M. (2016). A review of extensive variation in the design of pitfall traps and a proposal for a standard pitfall trap design for monitoring ground-active arthropod biodiversity. Ecology and evolution, 6 (12), 3953-3964.
Spence, J R, and J K Niemelä. (1994) “Sampling Carabid Assemblages with Pitfall Traps: The Madness and the Method.” The Canadian Entomologist 126 (3). NRC Research Press Ottawa, Canada: 881–94. hdoi: 10.4039/Ent126881-3.
Woodcock, B. A. (2007) “Pitfall Trapping in Ecological Studies.” In Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems, 37–57. Blackwell Science Ltd.
New, T. R. (1999) “By-Catch, Ethics, and Pitfall Traps.” Journal of Insect Conservation 3 (1): 1–3. doi: 10.1023/A:1017191920328.
Oliver, I, and A J Beattie. (1996) “Designing a Cost-Effective Invertebrate Survey: A Test of Methods for Rapid Assessment of Biodiversity.” Ecological Applications 6 (2). JSTOR: 594–607. doi: 10.2307/2269394.
Pacheco, Renata, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Renata Pacheco, and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos. (2011) “Subterranean Pitfall Traps: Is It Worth Including Them in Your Ant Sampling Protocol?, Subterranean Pitfall Traps: Is It Worth Including Them in Your Ant Sampling Protocol?” Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 2012, 2012 (September): e870794. doi: 10.1155/2012/870794, 10.1155/2012/870794.
Perner, J., & Schueler, S. (2004). Estimating the density of ground-dwelling arthropods with pitfall traps using a nested-cross array. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73 (3), 469-477.
Shi, P. J., Zhao, Z. H., Sandhu, H. S., Hui, C., Men, X. Y., Ge, F., & Li, B. L. (2014). An optimization approach to the two-circle method of estimating ground-dwelling arthropod densities. Florida Entomologist, 644-652.
Zhao, Z. H., Shi, P. J., Hui, C., Ouyang, F., Ge, F., & Li, B. L. (2013). Solving the pitfalls of pitfall trapping: a two-circle method for density estimation of ground-dwelling arthropods. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4 (9), 865-871. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12083.
Adis J. 1979. Problems of interpreting arthropod sampling with pitfall traps. Zoolog. Anzeiger Jena 202: 177–184.
Luff, M L. (1975) “Some Features Influencing the Efficience Pitfall Traps.” Oecologia 19: 345–57. doi: 10.1007/BF00348110.
Thiele, H. U. (1977). Carabid Beetles in Their Environments: A Study on Habit Selection by Adaptations in Physiology and Behaviour. Translated by Joy Wieser. Springer-Verlag.
Lange, Markus, Martin M. Gossner, and Wolfgang W. Weisser. (2011) “Effect of Pitfall Trap Type and Diameter on Vertebrate by-Catches and Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Spider (Araneae) Sampling.” Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2 (2): 185–90. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00062.x.
Baars, MA. (1979) “Catches in Pitfall Traps in Relation to Mean Densities of Carabid Beetles.” Oecologia. doi: 10.1007/BF00344835.
Codling, Edward A, Michael J Plank, and Simon Benhamou. (2008) “Random Walk Models in Biology.” Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society 5 (25): 813–34. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2008.0014.
Kareiva, PM, and N Shigesada. (1983) “Analyzing Insect Movement as a Correlated Random Walk.” Oecologia. doi: 10.1007/BF00379695.
Zollner, PA, and SL Lima. (1999) “Search Strategies for Landscape-Level Interpatch Movements.” Ecology.
Heinz, SK, and E Strand. (2006) “Adaptive Patch Searching Strategies in Fragmented Landscapes.” Evolutionary Ecology. doi: 10.1007/s10682-005-5378-y.
Winder, L., Holland, J. M., Perry, J. N., Woolley, C., & Alexander, C. J. (2001). The use of barrier-connected pitfall trapping for sampling predatory beetles and spiders. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 98 (3), 249-258.
Hansen, J. E., & New, T. R. (2005). Use of barrier pitfall traps to enhance inventory surveys of epigaeic Coleoptera. Journal of Insect Conservation, 9 (2), 131–136. doi: 10.1007/s10841-004-5537-4
Boetzl, F. A., Ries, E., Schneider, G., & Krauss, J. (2018). It’sa matter of design—how pitfall trap design affects trap samples and possible predictions. PeerJ, 6, e5078.