Wildlife Threats and Their Relative Severity of Eastern Ethiopia Protected Areas
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 59-67
Received: Jun. 5, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 7, 2017; Published: Sep. 22, 2017
Views 2962      Downloads 236
Authors
Mengistu Wale, Animal Biodiversity Directorate, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abeje Kassie, Animal Biodiversity Directorate, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Getachew Mulualem, Mekelle Biodiversity Center, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Weldemariam Tesfahunegny, Animal Biodiversity Directorate, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abraham Assefa, Animal Biodiversity Directorate, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Protected areas in Ethiopia faced a range of threats. However, little information is known about the type, pattern, and extent of these threats. Understanding these issues are crucial in prioritizing conservation strategies and to take appropriate mitigation measure for effective protection of wildlife. This study attempts to investigate the relative severity of threat to eastern Ethiopia protected areas and how these protected areas are threatened to the identified threats. A total of forty-five field officers from the five eastern Ethiopia protected areas were interviewed. Thirteen potential threats that affect the biodiversity of eastern Ethiopia were identified. The most important threats include grazing by domestic animal, shortage of funding, increased human population growth, expansion of invasive alien species, weak law enforcement, encroachment of human settlement, human wildlife conflict, lack of alternative livelihood activities and others. All of the protected areas are susceptible to most of the identified threats. Protected areas having acacia commiphora and scrub land a predominant ecosystem type and surrounded by settlement and agricultural land uses practice were the most susceptible to the threat factors. Babile elephant sanctuary and Yangudi-Rassa national park are the two most threatened protected areas. 58% of the threats showed strong positive and significant relationship with protected area relative threatened index. Thus, involvements of multi stakeholders including local community is essential to develop protected area management strategies by prioritizing the identified threats to reduce biodiversity loss in eastern Ethiopia protected areas.
Keywords
Protected Areas, Wildlife, Threats Factors, Conservation
To cite this article
Mengistu Wale, Abeje Kassie, Getachew Mulualem, Weldemariam Tesfahunegny, Abraham Assefa, Wildlife Threats and Their Relative Severity of Eastern Ethiopia Protected Areas, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 59-67. doi: 10.11648/j.eeb.20170204.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Yalden, D. W. and M. J. Largen, (1992). The endemic mammals of Ethiopia. Mammal Rev., 22: 115-150.
[2]
Vreugdenhil, D. Vreugdenhil, A. D., Tamirat Tilahun, Anteneh Shimelis, Zelealem Tefera (2012). Gap Analysis of the Protected Areas System of Ethiopia, with technical contributions from Nagelkerke, L., Gedeon, K. Spawls, S., Yalden, D., Lakew Berhanu, and Siege, L., World Institute for Conservation and Environment, USA. Wildlife Conservation Society International, New York, and Ethiopian Wildlife.
[3]
Lepage, D. (2006). Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World-Ethiopia. http://www.bsc- eoc.org.
[4]
Abeje Kassie (2017). Checklist of Herpeto-fauna of Ethiopia, unpublished document. Ethiopian biodiversity institute.
[5]
Berehanu Beyene, (2016). Checklist for insect species in Ethiopian. unpublished document. Ethiopian biodiversity institute.
[6]
Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C. Venail, P., Narwani, A., Mace, G. M., Tilman, D., Wardle, D. A. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature. 486: 59-67.
[7]
Krause, T. and Zambonino, H. (2013). More than just trees- animal species diversity and participatory forest monitoring in the Ecuadorian Amazon. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 9: 225-238.
[8]
Brooks, T. M., Mittemeier, R. A., Mittemeier, C. G. and da Fonseca, G. A. B. (2002). Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 16: 909-923.
[9]
Baldus, R. D. (2008). Wildlife: Can it pay its way or must it be subsidized? In: R. D. Baldus, G. R. Damn and K. Wollscheid (eds.) Best practices in sustainable hunting- A guide to best practices from around the world. pp. 12-16.
[10]
Leuschner, C., Moser, G., Hertel, D., Erasmi, S., Leitner, D., Culmsee, H., Schuldt, B. and Schwendenmann, L. (2013). Conversion of tropical moist forest into cacao agro forest: consequences for carbon pools and annual C sequestration. Agroforestry Systems. 87: 1173-1187.
[11]
Michel, S. (2008). Conservation and use of wild Ungulates in central Asia- potentials and challenges. In: R. D. Baldus, G. R. Damn and K. Wollscheid (eds.) Best practices in sustainable hunting- A guide to best practices from around the world. pp. 32-40.
[12]
Kideghesho, J. R. (2009). The potentials of traditional African cultural practices in mitigating overexploitation of wildlife species and habitat loss: experience of Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management, 5: 83-94.
[13]
Lambooy, T. and Levashova, Y. (2011). Opportunities and challenges for private sector entrepreneurship and investment in biodiversity, ecosystem services and nature conservation. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. 7: 301-318.
[14]
Vatn, A., Barton, D. N., Lindhjem, H., Movik, S., Ring, I. and Santos, R. (2011). Can markets protect biodiversity? An evaluation of different financial mechanisms. Noragic Report No. 60. Norway: Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
[15]
Convention on Biological Diversity. (1992). Preamble to the Convention on Biological Diversity. (Accessed from www.biodiv.org/ convention/articles.asp on 3 March 2015).
[16]
Young J. (2012). Ethiopian Protected Areas A ‘snapshot’. A reference guide for future strategic.
[17]
OBf, 2009. Assessment of the value of the protected area system of Ethiopia, Making the economic case. Main report, volume II. Pp 42.
[18]
Alemneh Amare. (2015). Conservation Challenges of Gibe Sheleko National Park, Southwestern Ethiopia. Natural Resources, 6, 286-289.
[19]
EBI (2015). Ethiopia’s national biodiversity strategy and action plan 2015-2020.
[20]
Solomon, Belay, Amsalu, A. and Abebe, E. (2014). Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Awash National Park, Ethiopia: Impact of Decentralization on the Use and Management of Resources. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 950-960.
[21]
EWCA (2014). Awash National Park Ecological and Threat Monitoring Priorities and Plan. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp 4-5.
[22]
Kiringe and Okello. (2007). Threats and their relative severity to wildlife protected areas of Kenya. Applied ecology and environmental research, 5 (2): 49-62.
[23]
James Malcolm and Paul H. Evangelista. (2005). The range and status of Mountain Nyala. Technical report. pp 26.
[24]
Birdlife international. (2004). Towards an ecologically representative network of protected areas in Ethiopia Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. pp 1-2.
[25]
Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical Analysis. 5th Edition. Prentice - Hall Publishers, New Jersey.
[26]
Wangchuk, S. (2002). Grazing management in national parks and protected areas: science, socio-economics and legislation. Journal of Bhutan Studies. Vol. 7, Pp. 61-81.
[27]
Leverington, F., Costa, K. L., Pavese, H. et al., (2010). Environmental Management. Vol. 46, No. 5, pp 685–698. doi: 10.1007/s00267-010-9564-5.
[28]
George, F. M., (2014). Human Population Growth and Wildlife Extinction in Ugalla Ecosystem, Western Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 192-217.
[29]
Cole, D. N., and Landres, P., B. (1996). Threats to wilderness ecosystems: impacts and research needs. Ecological Applications. 6 (1), 1996. pp. 168-l 84.
[30]
Muluken Mekuyie Fenta (2014). Human-Wildlife Conflicts: Case Study in Wondo Genet District, Southern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 352-362.
[31]
Gibson, C. C., J. T. Williams, E. Ostrom. (2005). Local enforcement and better forests. World Development 33/2: 273–284.
[32]
Fischer, F. (2008). The Importance of Law Enforcement for Protected Areas: Don't Step Back! Be Honest Protect. Pp. 101–103.
[33]
Moshi, S., B., (2016). Impacts of protected areas on local livelihood: a case study of saadani national park Natural Resources Management. Master’s thesis in Natural Resources Management (Biology). Norwegian University of Science and Technology pp. 1-23.
[34]
Gandiwa, E., et al. (2014). Local People’s Knowledge and Perceptions of Wildlife Conservation in Southeastern Zimbabwe. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 474-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2014.56050
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186