Please enter verification code
Antipredator Mechanism of Hylarana nigrovittata (Blyth, 1856) (Anura: Ranide) from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Volume 1, Issue 3, December 2016, Pages: 64-67
Received: Oct. 18, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 8, 2016; Published: Dec. 12, 2016
Views 3163      Downloads 73
Shahriza Shahrudin, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Article Tools
Follow on us
In this study, Hylarana nigrovittata was used as specimen organism to explore antipredator behaviour. In March 2016, five adult males of H. nigrovittata were collected from its natural habitat at Lata Bayu, Baling, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. When these specimens released in an open area, they leaped in various directions and showed several defensive mechanisms. Active escape is the main strategy and observed in all the specimens. Death feigning behaviour was shown by specimen 1 and 4, crouching down by specimen 3 and stiff-legged by specimen 4. However, specimen 2 and 5 hasn’t shown any defensive strategy except the active escape. These findings revealed the antipredator mechanism developed by H. nigrovittata, for a protection against the potential predators.
Anura, Defensive Strategy, Hylarana nigrovittata, Peninsular Malaysia, Stream
To cite this article
Shahriza Shahrudin, Antipredator Mechanism of Hylarana nigrovittata (Blyth, 1856) (Anura: Ranide) from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 64-67. doi: 10.11648/j.eeb.20160103.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Berry, P. Y. (1975). The Amphibians Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur. 133 pp.
Bertoluci, J., Brassaloti, R. A., Sawakuchi, H. O., Ribeiro, J. W. JR and Woehl, G. JR (2007). Defensive Behavior with Stiff-legged Posture in the Brazilian Tree Toads Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus and D. leucomystax (Anura, Bufonidae). Alytes. 25 (1-2): 38-44.
Duellman, W. E. and Trueb, L. (1986). Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. 670 pp.
Giaretta, A. and Martins, L. (2009). Notes on the Call and Behavior of Arcovomer passarellii (Anura: Microhylidae). Herpetology Notes. 2: 91-93.
Grismer, L. L., Chan, K. O., Grismer, J. L., Wood, P. L., Jr. and Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology. 17 (2): 147-160.
Grismer, L. L. (2011). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt. 239 pp.
Ibrahim, J., Zalina, A., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M. S., Nur Hafizah, I., Amirah, H., Nurul Dalila, A. R., Abdul Muin, M. A. and Amirudin, I. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana. 41 (6): 691-696.
IUCN (2015). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. . Downloaded on 07 May 2016.
Kiew, B. H., Diong, C. H. and Lim, B. L. (1995). An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians Fauna in the Temenggor Forest Reserve, Hulu Perak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 48: 347-351.
Mira-Mendes, C. V., Ruas, D. S., Castro, I., Sole, M. and Baumgarten, J. E. (2016). Defensive Behaviours in the Bahia Forest Frog Macrogenioglottus alipioi Carvalho, 1946 (Anura: Odontophrynidae), with a Review of the Stiff-legged Posture. Herpetology Notes. 9: 91-94.
Sazima, I. (1978). Convergent Defensive Behavior of Two Leaf-litter Frog of Southeastern Brazil. Biotropica. 10 (2): 158.
Shahriza, S. (2014a). Defensive Behaviour of Microhyla berdmorei (Blyth, 1856) (Anura: Microhylidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Herpetology Notes. 7: 787-789.
Shahriza, S. (2014b). Leptobrachium hendricksoni (Spotted Litter Frog). Death Feigning. Herpetological Review. 45 (4).680.
Shahriza, S. (2016). Death Feigning Behaviour of Several Frog Species from Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Annual Research and Review in Biology. 9 (6): 1-8.
Toledo, L. F. and Haddad, C. F. B. (2009). Colors and some Morphological Traits as Defensive Mechanisms in Anurans. International Journal of Zoology. 2009: 1-12.
Toledo, L. F., Sazima, I. and Haddad, C. F. B. (2010). Is it all Death Feigning? Case in Anurans. Journal of Natural History. 44: 31-32.
Toledo, L. F., Sazima, I. and Haddad, C. F. B. (2011). Behavioural Defences of Anurans: An Overview. Ethology Ecology & Evolution. 23 (1): 1-25.
Wells, K. D. (2007). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. Chicago and London. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 1400.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186