Please enter verification code
Relationship Between Consanguineous Marriages and Incidence and Severity of Refractive Errors: A Cross-sectional Study
International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 81-87
Received: Oct. 7, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 26, 2019; Published: Nov. 5, 2019
Views 638      Downloads 146
Ali Mazyed Alsaqr, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Congenital and genetic ocular disorders are linked to parental consanguinity. The aims was to investigate the effects of consanguineous marriages on the refractive errors of preschool-aged and adolescent patients. Two sample groups were recruited: the preschooler group (3–6 years; 335 participants) and the adolescent group (12–20 years; 998 participants). The required sample size was calculated using a sample size estimation software. Visual acuity was measured using the 15-line Lea symbols chart in the pre-school aged group and non-illuminated ETDRS VA chart in the adolescent group. Spherical equivalent refractive errors were noted with near-retinoscopy technique in young children and with the ARK-30 autorefractor in the adolescent group. In order to explore the impact of consanguineous marriages, the data were analyzed separately based on the age group using SPSS version 21 software. In the preschooler group, myopia was found in 4.2%, hyperopia in 8.1%, and astigmatism in 20%. Three children had high myopic scores (-10.00 D, -13.50 D and -17.50 D). In the adolescent group, 45.6% participants were myopic, 3.8% were hyperopic, and 22.3% were astigmatic. Despite the higher frequency of RE in those 15 years and older in the cousins group and the consanguineous parents of the three preschool-aged children with high myopia, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) evidence that consanguineous marriages impact the refractive errors of their children. In conclusion, despite previous studies showing a link between ocular genetic or congenital disorders and consanguinity, no such link could be established with regard to refractive errors.
Consanguinity, Consanguineous Marriages, Refractive Errors, Myopia, Saudi, Arabs
To cite this article
Ali Mazyed Alsaqr, Relationship Between Consanguineous Marriages and Incidence and Severity of Refractive Errors: A Cross-sectional Study, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 81-87. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20190404.15
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bhinder MA, Sadia H, Mahmood N, et al. Consanguinity: A blessing or menace at population level? Annals of Human Genetics. 2019; 83: 214-9.
Bittles AH. The Role and Significance of Consanguinity as a Demographic Variable. Population and Development Review. 1994; 20: 561-84.
Bittles AH, Savithri HS, Venkatesha Murthy HS, Baskaran G, Wang W and Cahill J. Human inbreeding: a familiar story full of surprises. In: Macbeth H and Shetty P, (eds.). Ethnicity and Health. London: Taylor and Francis., 2001, p. 68-78.
Tadmouri GO, Nair P, Obeid T, Al Ali MT, Al Khaja N and Hamamy HA. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs. Reproduct Health. 2009; 6: 17.
Islam MM, Ababneh FM and Khan MDHR. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN JORDAN: AN UPDATE. Journal of Biosocial Science. 2018; 50: 573-8.
Bittles A. The global prevalence of consanguinity.
Al Husain M and Al Bunyan M. Consanguineous marriages in a Saudi population and the effect of inbreeding on prenatal and postnatal mortality. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1997; 17: 155-60.
Al-Abdulkareem AA and Ballal SG. Consanguineous marriage in an urban area of Saudi Arabia: rates and adverse health effects on the offspring. J Community Health. 1998; 23: 75-83.
Saedi-Wong S and al-Frayh AR. Effects of consanguineous matings on anthropometric measurements of Saudi newborn infants. Fam Pract. 1989; 6: 217-20.
el-Hazmi MA, al-Swailem AR, Warsy AS, al-Swailem AM, Sulaimani R and al-Meshari AA. Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian population. J Med Genet. 1995; 32: 623-6.
El-Mouzan MI, Al-Salloum AA, Al-Herbish AS, Qurachi MM and Al-Omar AA. Regional variations in the prevalence of consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2007; 28: 1881-4.
Sandridge AL, Takeddin J, Al-Kaabi E and Frances Y. Consanguinity in Qatar: knowledge, attitude and practice in a population born between 1946 and 1991. J Biosoc Sci. 2009; 42: 59-82.
Hamamy H, Antonarakis SE, Cavalli-Sforza LL, et al. Consanguineous marriages, pearls and perils: Geneva International Consanguinity Workshop Report. Genet Med. 2011; 13: 841-7.
Oniya O, Neves K, Ahmed B and Konje JC. A review of the reproductive consequences of consanguinity. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2019; 232: 87-96.
Hemant CS and Huchechesha K. CONSANGUINITY AND RISK OF CONGENITAL DEFECTS- A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences-Jemds. 2018; 7: 3552-9.
Bittles A, Mason W, Greene J and Rao N. Reproductive behavior and health in consanguineous marriages. Science. 1991; 252: 789-94.
Bittles AH and Black ML. The impact of consanguinity on neonatal and infant health. Early Hum Dev. 2010; 86: 737-41.
Jaber L, Halpern GJ and Shohat M. The impact of consanguinity worldwide. Community Genet. 1998; 1: 12-7.
Stoltenberg C, Magnus P, Lie RT, Daltveit AK and Irgens LM. Birth defects and parental consanguinity in Norway. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 145: 439-48.
Bromiker R, Glam-Baruch M, Gofin R, Hammerman C and Amitai Y. Association of parental consanguinity with congenital malformations among Arab newborns in Jerusalem. Clin Genet. 2004; 66: 63-6.
Bennett RL, Motulsky AG, Bittles A, et al. Genetic counseling and screening of consanguineous couples and their offspring: recommendations of the National Society of genetic Genetic Counselors. J Genet Couns. 2002; 11: 97-119.
Teeuw ME, Loukili G, Bartels EAC, ten Kate LP, Cornel MC and Henneman L. Consanguineous marriage and reproductive risk: attitudes and understanding of ethnic groups practising consanguinity in Western society. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2014; 22: 452-7.
Lima SOA, Farias AA, Albino VA, et al. A population-based study of inter-generational attitudes towards consanguineous marriages in north-eastern Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science. 2019; 51: 683-97.
Josephi-Taylor S, Barlow-Stewart K, Selvanathan A, et al. User Acceptability of Whole Exome Reproductive Carrier Testing for Consanguineous Couples in Australia. Journal of Genetic Counseling. 2019; 28: 240-50.
Salway S, Ali P, Ratcliffe G, et al. Responding to the increased genetic risk associated with customary consanguineous marriage among minority ethnic populations: lessons from local innovations in England. Journal of Community Genetics. 2016; 7: 215-28.
Darr A, Small N, Ahmad WIU, Atkin K, Corry P and Modell B. Addressing key issues in the consanguinity-related risk of autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous communities: lessons from a qualitative study of British Pakistanis. Journal of Community Genetics. 2016; 7: 65-79.
Thain E, Shuman C, Miller K, et al. Prenatal and preconception genetic counseling for consanguinity: Consanguineous couples' expectations, experiences, and perspectives. Journal of Genetic Counseling. 2019; 28: 982-92.
Memish ZA and Saeedi MY. Six-year outcome of the national premarital screening and genetic counseling program for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2011; 31: 229-35.
Hamamy H, Al-Hait S, Alwan A and Ajlouni K. Jordan: communities and community genetics. Community Genet. 2007; 10: 52-60.
Al-Allawi NA and Al-Dousky AA. Frequency of haemoglobinopathies at premarital health screening in Dohuk, Iraq: implications for a regional prevention programme. East Mediterr Health J. 2010; 16: 381-5.
Al Arrayed S. Campaign to control genetic blood diseases in Bahrain. Community Genet. 2005; 8: 52-5.
Mendilcioglu I, Yakut S, Keser I, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in southwestern Turkey. Hemoglobin. 2011; 35: 47-55.
Alswaidi FM, Memish ZA, O'Brien SJ, et al. At-risk marriages after compulsory premarital testing and counseling for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia, 2005-2006. J Genet Couns. 2012; 21: 243-55.
Gurdasani D, Barroso I, Zeggini E and Sandhu MS. Genomics of disease risk in globally diverse populations. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2019; 20: 520-35.
Kemmanu V, Giliyar SK, Rao HL, Shetty BK, Kumaramanickavel G and McCarty CA. Consanguinity and its association with visual impairment in southern India: the Pavagada Pediatric Eye Disease Study 2. J Community Genet. 2019; 10: 345-50.
Kumaramanickavel G, Joseph B, Vidhya A, Arokiasamy T and Shridhara Shetty N. Consanguinity and ocular genetic diseases in South India: analysis of a five-year study. Community Genet. 2002; 5: 182-5.
Akkaya S. Rate of parental consanguineous marriage among patients with visual impairments in Turkey. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2016; 5: 115-20.
Tabbara KF and Badr IA. Changing pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia. Brit J Ophthalmol. 1985; 69: 312-15.
den Hollander AI, Lopez I, Yzer S, et al. Identification of novel mutations in patients with leber congenital amaurosis and juvenile RP by genome-wide homozygosity mapping with SNP microarrays. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48: 5690-98.
Schwarz K, Yeung S, Symons N and Bradbury J. Survey of school children with visual impairment in Bradford. Eye. 2002; 16: 530-4.
Bandrakalli P, Ganekal S, Jhanji V, Liang YB and Dorairaj S. Prevalence and causes of monocular childhood blindness in a rural population in southern India. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012; 49: 303-7.
Alsaqr AM, Ibrahim G, Sharha AA and Fagehi R. Investigating the Visual Status Of Preschool Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2017; 24: 190-4.
Alsaqr AM, Abu Sharha A, Fagehi R, et al. The visual status of adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a population study. Clin Ophthalm. 2018; 12: 965-72.
Bardisi WM and Bin Sadiq BM. Vision screening of preschool children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2002; 23: 445-9.
Yamamah GAN and Mohammed AM. Prevalence of visual impairment and refractive errors in children of south Sinai, Egypt. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015; 22: 357.
Mohindra I. Non-cycloplegic refraction technique for infants and young-children. J Am Optom Assoc. 1977; 48: 518-23.
Mohindra I and Molinari J. Near retinoscopy and cycloplegic retinoscopy in early primary grade schoolchildren. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1979; 56: 34-8.
Borghi RA and Rouse MW. Comparison of refraction obtained by near retinoscopy and retinoscopy under cycloplegia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1985; 62: 169-72.
Saunders K and Westall C. Comparison between near retinoscopy and cycloplegic retinoscopy in the refraction of infants and children. Optom Vis Sci. 1992; 69: 615-22.
de Juan V, Herreras JM, Martin R, et al. Repeatability and agreement of ARK-30 autorefraction after cataract surgery. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012; 40: 134-40.
Reddy MA, Purbrick R and Petrou P. The prevalence of patients with ocular genetic disorders attending a general paediatric ophthalmology clinic in the East End of London. Eye. 2008; 23: 1111-4.
Nirmalan PK, Krishnaiah S, Nutheti R, Shamanna BR, Rao GN and Thomas R. Consanguinity and eye diseases with a potential genetic etiology. Data from a prevalence study in Andhra Pradesh, India. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2006; 13: 7-13.
Tabbara KF. Blindness in the eastern Mediterranean countries. Brit J Ophthalmol. 2001; 85: 771-75.
al-Salem M and Rawashdeh N. Pattern of childhood blindness and partial sight among Jordanians in two generations. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1992; 29: 361-5.
Ko F, Papadopoulos M and Khaw PT. Primary congenital glaucoma. In: Bagetta G and Nucci C, (eds.). New Trends in Basic and Clinical Research of Glaucoma: A Neurodegenerative Disease of the Visual System, Pt B. 2015, p. 177-89.
Bagheri M, Farvardin M and Saadat M. A study of consanguineous marriage as a risk factor for developing comitant strabismus. J Community Genet. 2015; 6: 177-80.
Khan AO, Shinwari J, Al Sharif L, Khalil D, Al-Gehedan S and Al Tassan NA. Infantile esotropia could be oligogenic and allelic with Duane retraction syndrome. Mol Vis. 2011; 17: 1997-2002.
Matsumura H and Hirai H. Prevalence of myopia and refractive changes in students from 3 to 17 years of age. Surv of Ophthalmol. 1999; 44: S109-S15.
Lin LLK, Shih YF, Hsiao CK and Chen CJ. Prevalence of myopia in Taiwanese schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2004; 33: 27-33.
Giordano L, Friedman D, Repka M, et al. Prevalence of refractive error among preschool children in an urban population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2009; 116: 739-46.
Williams KM, Bertelsen G, Cumberland P, et al. Increasing prevalence of myopia in Europe and the impact of education. Ophthalmology. 2015; 122: 1489-97.
Al-Rowaily MA. Prevalence of refractive errors among pre-school children at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2010; 24: 45-8.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186