Normative Study to Correlate the Effects of Morphological Variables on Macular and Choroidal Thickness Using SD-OCT
International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Jan. 2, 2019;
Accepted: Jan. 21, 2019;
Published: Feb. 13, 2019
Views 912 Downloads 120
Sumeet Chopra, Department of Ophthalmology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Ludhiana, India
Preet Kanwar Singh Sodhi, Department of Vitreo-Retina, Sodhi Eye Hospital, Patiala, India
Akash Deep Goel, Department of Cornea, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
Sehajpreet Kaur, Department of Ophthalmology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Ludhiana, India
Gurkirat Singh Bajwa, Department of Ophthalmology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Ludhiana, India
To determine macular and choroidal thickness in healthy north Indian eyes and determine its variation with age and height using SD-OCT. The macula of 400 randomly selected healthy subjects (800 eyes) with no retinal and choroidal pathology was imaged with Cirrus SD-OCT. Macular thickness from all 9 regions of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study was evaluated. Choroid was visualized by enhanced depth imaging technique. Choroidal thickness was measured sub foveally and at 500 microns intervals upto 1500 microns temporal and nasal to the fovea. The mean age of the subjects was 33.60 years ± 14.033 and mean height was 163.5 cms ± 11.715. Mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 242.59 µm ± 16.802 and mean sub foveal choroidal thickness was 325.18 µm ± 47.087. CMT correlated significantly (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) with age (r=0.120, p<0.001) and height (r=0.258, p<0.001). Choroidal thickness decreased with age and the correlation was statistically significant. Choroidal thickness also decreased with height with a statistically significant correlation, but no specific pattern was found. This normative database of choroidal and macular thickness by OCT will serve as baseline for diagnosing retinal pathologies and help in future research.
Preet Kanwar Singh Sodhi,
Akash Deep Goel,
Gurkirat Singh Bajwa,
Normative Study to Correlate the Effects of Morphological Variables on Macular and Choroidal Thickness Using SD-OCT, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
Nussenblatt RB, Kaufman SC, Palestine AG, Davis MD, Ferris FL Macular thickening and visual acuity: Measurements in patients with cystoid macular edema. Ophthalmology. 1987; 94:1134–1139.
Spaide RF, Koizumi H, Pozonni MC. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008; 146 (4): 496-500.
Choovuthayakorn J, Watanachai N, Chaikitmongkol V, Patikulsila D, Kunavisarut P, Ittipunkul N: Macular thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in healthy Thai eyes. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2012; 56 (6):569-76.
Zia S Pradhan, Andrew Braganza, Lekha M Abraham: Determinants of macular thickness in normal Indian eyes. J. Cli Oph. Res. 2013; 1 (1):11-16.
Barteselli G, Chhablani J, El-Emam S, Wang H, Chuang J, Kozak I, et al. Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: A three dimensional analysis. Ophthalmology 2012; 119:2572-8.
Tan CS, Ouyang Y, Ruiz H, Sadda SR. Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53:261-6.
Manjunath V, Taha M, Fujimoto JG, Duker JS. Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010; 150 (3):325-9.
Hirata M, Tsujikawa A, Matsumoto A, Hangai M, Ooto S, Yamashiro K, et al. Macular choroidal thickness and volume in normal subjects measured by swept source optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci. 2011; 52:4971-8.
Ikuno Y, Kawaguchi K, Nouchi T, Yasuno Y. Choroidal Thickness in healthy Japanese subjects. Invt Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010; 51 (4):2174-6.
Kelty PJ, Payne JF, Trivedi RH, Kelty J, Bowie EM, Burger BM. Macular thickness assessment in healthy eyes based on ethnicity using Stratus OCT optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008; 49 (6):2668-72.
Huang J, Liu X, Wu Z, Xiao H, Dustin L, Sadda S. Macular thickness measurements in normal eyes with time-domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Retina 2009; 29 (7):980-7.
Duan X. R., Liang Y. B., Friedman D. S., et al. Normal macular thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons. Ophthalmology. 2010; 117 (8):1585–1594.
Tewari H, Wagh V, Sony P, Venkatesh P, Singh R. Macular thickness evaluation using the optical coherence tomography in normal Indian eyes. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004; 52 (3):199-204.
Manassakorn A, Chaidaroon W, Ausayakhun S, Aupapong S, Wattananikorn S. Normative database of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular retinal thickness in a Thai population. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008; 52 (6):450-6.
Oshitari T, Hanawa K, Adachi-Usami E. Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Japanese measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography. Clin Ophthalmol. 2007; 1:133-40.
Chan A, Duker JS, Ko TH, Fujimoto JG, Schuman JS. Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006; 124 (2):193-8.
Song WK, Lee SC, Lee ES, Kim CY, Kim SS. Macular Thickness Variations with Sex, Age, and Axial Length in Healthy Subjects: A Spectral Domain–OCT Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010; 51 (8):3913-8.
Gupta P, Sidhartha E, Tham YC, Chua DK, Liao J, Cheng CY, et al. Determinants of macular thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes: the Singapore Chinese Eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54:7968-76.
Bindu Appukuttan, Anantharaman Giridhar, Mahesh Gopalakrishnan, and Sobha Sivaprasad. Normative spectral domain optical coherence tomography data on macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Indians. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar; 62 (3): 316–321.
Terasaki H, Shirasawa M, Yamashita T, et al. Comparison of foveal microstructure imaging with different spectral domain optical coherence tomography machines. Ophthalmology. 2012; 119 (11):2319-27.
Kim M, Kim SS, Koh HJ, Lee SC. Choroidal thickness, age and refractive error in healthy Korean subjects. Optom Vis Sci. 2014; 91:491–496.
Ruiz-Moreno JM, Flores-Moreno I, Lugo F, Ruiz-Medrano J, Montero JA, Akiba M. Macular choroidal thickness in normal pediatric population measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54:353–359.
Xiaoyan Ding, Jiaqing Li, Jing Zeng, Wei Ma, Ran Liu, Tao Li, Shanshan Yu, and Shibo Tang. Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Chinese Subjects. IOVS, December 2011; Vol. 52, No. 13:9555-9560.
Yasushi Ikuno, Kana Kawaguchi, Takeyoshi Nouchi,, and Yoshiaki Yasuno Choroidal Thickness in Healthy Japanese Subjects. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, April 2010; Vol. 51, No. 4: 2174-2176.
Rahman W, Chen FK, Yeoh J, Patel P, Tufail A, Da Cruz L. Repeatability of manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in healthy subjects using the technique of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52:2267-71.
Ihsan Yilmaz, Abdullah O, Murat K, Sibel A, Hande M. O, Dilek Y, Alper A, Ahmet T. Y, Ahmet D. Correlation of choroidal thickness and Body Mass Index. Retina 35:2085–2090, 2015.