Techniques and Automation in Eye Care and Vision Testing Using Smartphone
International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume 2, Issue 4, November 2017, Pages: 88-92
Received: Jul. 8, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 31, 2017; Published: Aug. 22, 2017
Views 2318      Downloads 153
Shilpa, National Institute of Information Technology, E&CED, Hamirpur, India
Gargi Khanna, National Institute of Information Technology, E&CED, Hamirpur, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
This article presents the overview of smartphone applicability in the field of ophthalmology. Eye and vision health is the most essential part in the human life span. According to the national surveys eye vision loss is the most common fear among the humans and everyone expect for good eye care facility, and desire for lifetime enjoyment of good vision. With the advancement in use of smartphone among the masses has increased exponentially. Smartphones are multifunctional electronic device with the computing capabilities and connectivity’s. Smartphone not only serve the purpose of telephone calls and texting but they have advanced multiple functionality and ability to run the advanced applications. With the dramatic rise in the need of ophthalmic devices and ophthalmic care in the health sector there is a rapid need of equipments which are cost effective and can be beneficial rural people especially for the developing nations like India where most of the population reside in rural areas under constraint conditions and low availability of health care facilities. Ophthalmological applications which are turning the smartphones into the medical devices include Peek vision app, Sightbook app, Digisight app etc.
Visual Acuity, Smartphone Applications, Rretinal Imaging, Eye Testing
To cite this article
Shilpa, Gargi Khanna, Techniques and Automation in Eye Care and Vision Testing Using Smartphone, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 88-92. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20170204.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Goodman RA, Posner SF, Huang ES, Parekh AK, Koh HK. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions: Imperatives for Research, Policy, Program, and Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2013; 10: 120239.
Scott A, Bressler N, Floker S, et al. Public attitudes about eye and vision health. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016; 134(10): 1111–1118.
Copeland B, Flanigan B, Phelps A, et al. MACRA: disrupting the US health system at all levels. Available at: articles/macra.html. Accessed July 8, 2016
Laidlaw DA, Abbott A, Rosser DA. Development of a clinically feasible log MAR alternative to the Snellen chart: performance of the “compact reduced log MAR” visual acuity chart in amblyopic children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003; 87(10): 1232-1234.
Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, et al. Retinopathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 (Suppl 1): s84-s7.
Tarr JM, Kaul K, Wolanska K, et al. Retinopathy in diabetes. In: Diabetes. An Old Disease, a New Insight. Springer Science + Business Media and Landes Bioscience 2013. 88-106.
Lim LS, Mitchell P, Seddon JM, et al. Age-related macular degeneration. Lancet 2012; 379(9827): 1728-38.
Kwon YH, Fingert JH, Kuehn MH, etal. Primary open-angle glaucoma. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(11): 1113-24.
Gerloff Ouber die photographie des augenhintergrundes. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 1891; 29: 397-403.
Scheimpflug T. Die Verwendung des Skioptikons zur Herstellung von Karten u. Pla¨nen aus Photographien 1898.
Devi. V, Varshitha. G, Singh V. P, Zaiba, Supriya. V. G. Automation of eye checkup, Proceedings of 11th IRF International Conference, 2016 May 8th, Hyderabad, India, ISBN: 978-93-86083-09-8.
Cassie A. Ludwig, BS, Mia X. Shan, BS, BAH, Nam Phuong H. Nguyen, Daniel Y. Choi, MD, Victoria Ku, BS, Carson K. Lam, MD. The future of automated mobile eye diagnosis, Journal MTM 5:2:44_50, 2016.
Adam, Gerstenblith, Rabinowitz Michael P. 6th Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2012. The: Wills Eye Manual Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease.
DiGirolamo Joseph. 1st Edition. Basic Health Publications; 2010. The Big Book of Family Eye Care: A Contemporary Reference for Vision and Eye Care.
Tahiri Joutei Hassani R, El Sanharawi M, Dupont-Monod S, Baudouin C. Smart phones in ophthalmology. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2013; 36: 499-525.
Bastawrous A, Cheeseman RC, Kumar A. iPhones for eye surgeons. Eye (Lond). 2012; 26: 343-354.
Chhablani J, Kaja S, Shah VA. Smart phones in opthalmology. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012; 60: 127-131.
Bastawrous A, Rono HK, Livingstone IA, et al. Development and Validation of a Smartphone-Based Visual Acuity Test (Peek Acuity) for Clinical Practice and Commnity-Based Fieldwork. JAMA ophthalmology. 2015 May 28.
Ozdalga E, Ozdalga A, Ahuja N. The smartphone in medicine: a review of current and potential use among physicians and students. J Med Internet Res. 2012; 14: e128.
MIT Media Lab. NETRA: Refractive tests on a mobile phone. MIT Media Lab Web site. Available at:
Shah VA, Lord RK, San Filippo AN. Smartphones in Ophthalmology: Potential Uses of the Smartphone in Your Practice. Pearls in Ophthalmology [Internet] [Last cited 2010 Jul].
Keeler CR. A brief history of the ophthalmoscope. Optomet Prac 2003; 4: 137-45.
Mark HH. On the evolution of binocular ophthalmoscopy. Arch Ophthalmol 2007; 125: 830-33.
Shanmugam MP, Mishra DK, Madhukumar R, Ramanjulu R, Reddy SY, Rodrigues G. Fundus imaging with a mobile phone: review of techniques. Indian J Ophthalmol 2014; 62: 960-62.
DS Ademola-Popoola, VA Olatunji, Retinal Imaging with Smartphone, 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, IP:].
Lord RK, Shah VA, San Filippo AN, Krishna R. Novel uses of smartphones in ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2010; 117: 1274.
Haddock LJ, Kim DY, Mukai S. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes. J Ophthalmol 2013; Article ID 518479, 5.
Dyaberi R, Bajantri YB, Khatib ZI. Smartphone indirect ophthalmoscopy: For screening, evaluation, and documentation of the ocular fundus. J Vis Sci 2015; 1(1): 13-16.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186