Waste Rubber Tires: A Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Floor Tile Production
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Pages: 57-63
Received: Jul. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Aug. 7, 2019;
Published: Jun. 8, 2020
Views 118 Downloads 78
Gemeda Etefa, Department of Construction Technology and Management, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
Alemu Mosisa, Department of Civil Engineering, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Concrete tile is one of the most used construction materials in the world. Cement and aggregate, which are the most important constituents used in concrete tile production, they are the vital materials needed for the construction industry. This led to a continuous and increasing demand of natural materials used for their production. Parallel to the need for the utilization of the natural resources emerges a growing concern for protecting the environment and a need to preserve natural resources (such as aggregate) by using alternative materials which are recycled or waste materials. In this research, a study was carried out on the use of used rubber tires as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete tile production using locally available waste tires. A review of relevant literatures was done to study previous works in the subject matter. The research was carried out by conducting tests on the raw materials to determine their properties and suitability for the experiment. Concrete mix designs are prepared using the DOE method and a total of 12 mixes were prepared consisting of two concrete grades (C25 and C30). The specimens were produced with percentage replacements of the coarse aggregate by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of rubber aggregate with and without supper plasticizer (admixture). Moreover, a control mix with no replacement of the coarse aggregate was produced to make a comparative analysis. The prepared samples consist of concrete cubes, cylinders and beams. Laboratory tests were carried out on the prepared concrete samples. The lists of tests conducted are; material property, slump, unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength tests. The data collection was mainly based on the tests conducted on the prepared specimens in the laboratory. The test results were compared with the respective conventional concrete properties and show that there is a reduction in compressive strength of the concrete due to the inclusion of rubber aggregates. This is improved by using admixture to some extent, but lower density and enhanced ductility are the same, and there was a slight increase in flexural strength without admixture. The overall results show that it is possible to use recycled rubber tires in concrete tile production as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates. Nevertheless, the percentage of replacement should be limited to 10%.
Waste Rubber Tires: A Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Concrete Floor Tile Production, American Journal of Civil Engineering.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2020, pp. 57-63.
Kumaran, S. G., Nurdin M. and Lakshmipathy M., A Review on Construction Technologies that Enable Environmental Protection: Rubberized Concrete, USA, Science Publications, 2008.
Al-Akhras, Nabil M., and Mohammed M. Smadi. "Properties of tire rubber ash mortar." Cement and concrete composites 26.7 (2004): 821-826.
Kaloush, K. E, George B. W. and Han Z., Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete, Arizona: Arizona State University, 2004.
Groom R. E., Hanna J. A. and Tutu O., New Products incorporating Tire Materials, Northern Ireland: Questor Centre, 2005.
Prakash P., Sharma S. C. and Murthy C. S., Study of Crumb Rubber waste in Cement stabilized soil blocks, Bangalore, 2006.
Vanessa, C., Linda, G., Ase H., Joanne W. And Krishna R., Use of Shredded Tires as a Lightweight Backfill Material for Retaining Structures, Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995.
Gintautas, S., Audrius G. and Benjaminas C., Deformation Properties of Concrete with Rubber Waste Additives, Lithuania: Kaunas University of Technology, 2007.
Carol Carder, Rubberized concrete, Colorado: Rocky Mountain Construction, 2004.
Barnet J. and Associates Ltd, Recycling and Secondary Aggregates, Dublin, 2004.
Sidney Mindess, Young J. F. and David Darwin, Concrete, 2nd edition, New Jersey: Prentice hall, 2003.
Emiroglu, M., Kelestemur M. H. and Yildiz S., An Investigation on ITZ Microstructure of The Concrete Containing Waste Vehicle Tire, Istanbul: Firat University, 2007.
Cairns, R., Kew H. Y. and Kenny M. J., the Use of Recycled Rubber Tires in Concrete Construction, Glasgow: The Onyx Environmental Trust, 2004.
Meyer, C., Concrete As a Green Building Material, New York, 2004.
Naik, T. R. and Moriconi G., Environmental-friendly durable Concrete made with Recycled materials for Sustainable Concrete Construction, Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, 2005. 85.
ASTM International Standards, http://www.astm.org/standards, 2009.
The Portland Cement Association, http://www.cement.org, 2009.
Wallis, M. J., Sustainable Re-use of Tires in Port, Coastal and River Engineering, Seattle: HR Wallingford, 2005.
Shewaferaw Dinku, the Use of Manufactured Sand In Concrete Production: Test Results And Cost Comparison, MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa, 2006.
The Rubber Manufacturers Association, http://www.rma.org, 2009.
Danko, Michelle, Edgar, Cano and Jose Pena, Use of Recycled Tires as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate in the Production of Concrete, Purdue University Calumet, 2006.
Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org, 2009.
Stutz, John, Sara Donahue, Erica Mintzer, and Amy Cotter, Recycled Rubber Products in Landscaping Applications, Boston: Tellus Institute, 2003.
Federal Negarit Gazette of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Solid Waste Management Proclamation, 13th year, No. 13, Addis Ababa, 2007.
J. Felipe A., Jeannette Santos, the Use of Recycled Polymers and Rubbers in Concrete, Florida, 2004. 86.
Hallett, Paul The Use of Post-Consumer Tires as Aggregate, London: ais, 2002.
Abbott, Michael Crumb Rubber in Sport and Play, Dundee, 2001.
Ling T. C. and Hasanan M. N., Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete Paving Blocks With and without Facing Layer, Kuala lumpur, 2006.
Naik T. R. and Rafat Siddique, Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap Tire rubber -an Overview, Milwaukee, 2002.
Abebe Dinku, Construction Materials Laboratory Manual, Addis Ababa University Printing Press, Addis Ababa, 2002.
Yunping Xi, Yue Li, Zhaohui Xie, and Lee J. S., Utilization of Solid Wastes (Waste Glass and Rubber Particles) as Aggregates in Concrete, Colorado, 2003.
U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Reuse Of Concrete Materials From Building Demolition, Washington DC, 2004.
Abebe Dinku, DOE Method of Mix Design Process, Addis Ababa, 2008. [Lecture, AAU, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, 2007/2008].
Kang Jingfu, Han Chuncui and Zhang Zhenli, Roller-Compacted Concrete using Tire-Rubber Additive, Tianjin, 2008.
Ethiopian Tire and Rubber Economy Plant P. L. C., 2009. [Brochure].
Khatib, Z. K. and Bayomy, F. M., “Rubberized portland cement concrete,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 1999, pp. 206-213.
Ethiopian central statics agency, 2007.