Preparation and Characterization of CaSO4–SiO2–CaO/SO42- Composite for Biodiesel Production
American Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 38-45
Received: Jan. 15, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 19, 2015; Published: Feb. 9, 2015
Views 3479      Downloads 278
Authors
Rehab M. Ali, Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials and Research Institute (ATNMRI), City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), Alexandria, EGYPT
Mona M. Abd El Latif, Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials and Research Institute (ATNMRI), City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), Alexandria, EGYPT
Hassan A. Farag, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Biodiesel synthesis from waste frying oil (WFO), gained a huge industrial concern compared to the high priced virgin vegetable oils. The major catalysts used in biodiesel production are homogeneous catalysts, which are cheap. However, they have many drawbacks such as, serious separation problems, low biodiesel production yield and production of impure glycerol. This will lead to increase the produced biodiesel price. The latest trend in biodiesel production today is using heterogeneous catalysts that can address the homogeneous catalysts drawbacks. CaSO4–SiO2–CaO/SO42- composites with various SiO2 to CaO weight ratios were synthesized, characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, and FTIR. In addition, the prepared composites were used for biodiesel production and for determining the optimum operating conditions using gas chromatograph (GC). The obtained results clearly indicate that CaSO4–SiO2–CaO/SO42- can be used as stable and active catalyst for biodiesel production from WFO.
Keywords
Biodiesel, Heterogeneous Catalyst, Composite, Transesterification, Waste Frying Oil
To cite this article
Rehab M. Ali, Mona M. Abd El Latif, Hassan A. Farag, Preparation and Characterization of CaSO4–SiO2–CaO/SO42- Composite for Biodiesel Production, American Journal of Applied Chemistry. Special Issue: Nano-Technology for Environmental Aspects. Vol. 3, No. 3-1, 2015, pp. 38-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.s.2015030301.16
References
[1]
K.V. Thiruvengadaravi, J. Nandagopal, P. Baskaralingam, V. Bala, and S. Sivanesan, “Acid-catalyzed esterification of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil with high free fatty acids for biodiesel production”, Fuel, vol. 98, pp. 99 1 – 4, 2012.
[2]
P. Benjamin, J. Agudelo, and A. Agudelo, “Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel- diesel blends”, Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 2069 - 2075, 2008.
[3]
S. Jha, S. Fernando, and D. Filip, “Flame temperature analysis of biodiesel blends and components”, Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 1982 - 1988, 2008.
[4]
R.Wilson, and I.H. Farag, “Parametric study of biodiesel quality and yield using a bench-top processor”, International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, vol. 5, pp. 92 - 105,
[5]
M. Balat, “Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review”, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, pp. 858 – 875, 2011.
[6]
M.E. Borges, and L. Díaz, “Recent developments on heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production by oil esterification and transesterification reactions: A review” renewable and sustainable energy reviews, vol. 16, pp. 2839 – 2849, 2012.
[7]
M. Ziejewski, K.R. Kaufman, A.W. Schwab and E.H. Pryde “Diesel engine evaluation of a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion”, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society , vol. 61, pp. 1620 – 1626, 1984.
[8]
S.P. Singh, and D.D. Singh, “Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: A review” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, pp. 200 – 216, 2010.
[9]
F. Maa, and M.A. Hanna, “Biodiesel production: a review”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 70, pp. 1 -15, 1999.
[10]
U. Rashid, F. Anwar, A. Jamil, and H. Bhatti, “Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel”, Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 42, pp. 575 - 582, 2010.
[11]
A.B. Hossain, and M.A. Mazen, “Effects of catalyst types and concentrations on biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycling process”, AJCS, vol. 4, pp. 550-555, 2010.
[12]
M. Mansourpoor, and A. Shariat, “Optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower oil using response surface methodology”, Chemical Engineering and Process Technology, vol. 3, pp. 1 - 5, 2012.
[13]
R. Abd Rabu, I. Janajreh, and C. Ghenai, “Transesterification of biodiesel: process optimization and combustion performance”, International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 129 - 136, 2012.
[14]
E. Shalaby, and N. El-Gendy, “Two steps alkaline transesterification of waste cooking oil and quality assessment of produced biodiesel”, International journal of chemical and biochemical sciences, vol. 1, pp. 30 - 35, 2012.
[15]
E. Akhihiero, E. Aluyor, and T. Audu, “The effect of catalyst phase on biodiesel production (a review)”, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 93 -102, 2010.
[16]
The European Union’s Framework Contract Commission 2011 Lot 1 - Contract N° 2012/299193, “Assessing the impact of biofuels production on developing countries from the point of view of Policy Coherence for Development”, Final report, 2013.
[17]
S. Semwal, K. Arora, R. Badoni, and D. Tuli, “Biodiesel production using heterogeneous Catalysts”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, pp. 2151–2161, 2011.
[18]
A. Refaat, “Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 7, pp. 183 - 213, 2010.
[19]
A. Singh, and A. Sarma, “Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: A comprehensive review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, pp. 4378– 4399, 2011.
[20]
Y. Yap, H. Lee, R. Yunus, and J. Juan, “Transesterification of non-edible Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel using binary Ca–Mg mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition”, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 178, pp. 342 – 347, 2011.
[21]
A. Dehkordi, and M. Ghasemi, “Transesterification of waste cooking oil to biodiesel using Ca and Zr mixed oxides as heterogeneous base catalysts”, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 97, pp. 45 – 51, 2012.
[22]
Z. Kesica, I. Lukica, D. Brkica, J. Rogana, M. Zdujicb, H. Liuc, and D. Skala, “Mechanochemical preparation and characterization of CaO•ZnO used as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis”, Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 427, pp. 58 – 65, 2012.
[23]
M.K. Lam, and K.T. Lee, “Mixed methanol–ethanol technology to produce greener biodiesel from waste cooking oil: A breakthrough for SO4 2−/SnO2–SiO2 catalyst”, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, pp. 1639 – 1645, 2011.
[24]
L.P. Singh, S.K. Agarwal, S.K. Bhattacharyya, U. Sharma, and S. Ahalawat, “Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles and Its Beneficial Role in Cementitious Materials”, Nanomater. nanotechnol., vol. 1, pp. 44-51, 2011.
[25]
A.L. Patterson, “The scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination”, Phys. Rev, vol. 56, pp. 978–982, 1939.
[26]
H. Liu, L. Su, F. Liu, C. Li, and U.U. Solomon, “Cinder supported K2CO3 as catalyst for biodiesel production”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 106, pp. 550– 558, 2011.
[27]
Y. Park, D. Lee, D. Kim, J. Lee, and K. Lee, “The heterogeneous catalyst system for the continuous conversion of free fatty acids in used vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel”, Catal. Today, vol. 131, pp. 238–243, 2008.
[28]
N. Kondamudia, S. Mohapatrab, and M. Misra, “Quintinite as a bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis”, Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 393, pp. 36–43, 2011.
[29]
P. Singare, R. Lokhande, and R. Madyal,“Thermal degradation studies of some strongly acidic cation exchange resins”,Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 45-54, 2011.
[30]
H. A. Al-Jobouri, “FTIR Spectroscopy for Gypsum after Treatment with Steam Pressure”, Journal of Al-Nahrain University, vol. 14, pp. 123-130, 2011.
[31]
L. Correia, R.Saboya, N. Campelo, J. Cecilia, R. Enrique, C. Cavalcante, and R. Vieira, “Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 151, pp. 207–213, 2014.
[32]
P. Hyun, M. Joon, and S. Seok, “Structural investigation of CaO-Al2O3 and CaO-Al2O3-CaF2 slags via Fourier transform infrared spectra”, ISIJ international, vol. 42, pp. 38-43, 2002.
[33]
G. Malash, and M. El-Khaiary, “Methylene blue adsorption by the waste of Abu-Tartour phosphate rock”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 348, pp. 537–545, 2010.
[34]
M.K. Lam, K.T. Lee, and A. Mohamed, “Sulfated tin oxide as solid superacid catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil: An optimization study”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 93, pp. 134–139, 2009.
[35]
M. Kouzu, T. Kasuno, M. Tajika, Y. Sugimoto,S. Yamanaka, and J. Hidaka, “Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production”, Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 2798 – 2806, 2008.
[36]
K. Ramachandran, P. Sivakumar, T. Suganya, and S. Renganathan, “Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, pp. 7289–7293, 2011.
[37]
M. Su, R. Yang, and M. Li, “Biodiesel production from hempseed oil using alkaline earth metal oxides supporting copper oxide as bi-functional catalysts for transesterification and selective hydrogenation”, fuel, vol. 97, pp. 1- 9, 2012.
[38]
R. Mat, R. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, and A. Johari, “Solid catalysts and their application in biodiesel production”, Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, vol. 7, pp. 142 – 149, 2012.
[39]
C. Xu, J. Sun, B. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “On the study of KF/Zn(Al)O catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oil”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 99, pp. 111–117, 2010.
[40]
X. Liu, X. Piao, Y. Wang, S. Zhu, and H. He, “Calcium methoxide as a solid base catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol”, Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 1076-1082, 2008.
[41]
M. Olutoye, and B. Hameed, “Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg–Zn heterogeneous catalyst”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, pp. 6392–6398, 2011.
[42]
W. Xie, and L. Zhao, “Aminopropylsilica as an environmentally friendly and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil”, Fuel, vol. 95, pp. 1 – 5, 2012.
[43]
E. Agustian, M. Ghozali, R. Savitri, and S. Wuryaningsih, “Biodiesel production of jatrophacurcas oil by bentonite as catalyst”, Proceeding of International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application, pp. 35 – 39, 2012.
[44]
S. Tang, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Li, S. Tian, and B. Wang, “Study on preparation of Ca/Al/Fe3O4 magnetic composite solid catalyst and its application in biodiesel transesterification”, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 95, pp. 84–89, 2012.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186