American Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 77-83
Received: Mar. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Apr. 8, 2016;
Published: Apr. 27, 2016
Views 3779 Downloads 164
Esther Hellen Lugwisha, Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Galasia Lunyungu, Chang’ombe Secondary School, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
A study was conducted to investigate the capacity of Tanzanian kaolin-feldspar blends on water defluoridation. Five adsorbents of kaolin-feldspar blends were prepared at different ratios, namely; 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 0:1.The prepared adsorbents were activated at 60°C and then characterized by XRD and XRF. Mineralogical results showed that kaolin contained phases of kaolinite, illite and quartz whereas feldspar contained microcline and quartz. Chemical composition results indicated that both kaolin and feldspar samples contained silica and aluminium in high proportions. Defluoridation studies were conducted by using column method. Different parameters were tested for water defluoridation studies including particle size, contact time, initial fluoride ion concentration, height of the column and solution pH. It was observed that the adsorption increased with a decrease in particle size, and particle size of 0.25 mm showed the highest removal of fluoride. The fluoride adsorption was found to increase with contact time with optimum contact time after 45 minutes. A high adsorption of fluoride ions for all samples was observed at low pHs (2-6) and the maximum adsorption was at pH 2. Also the adsorption increased as the height of the column was increased. Regeneration of spent adsorbent did not afford to remove fluoride to acceptable levels, an aspect that needs more investigation. The study therefore concludes that, although the blends can be used as defluoridation materials; blending kaolin and feldspar did not improve adsorption of fluoride ions from fluoridated water. The best adsorbent was B1 which consists of kaolin only followed by B2 with 2:1 kaolin-feldspar ratio.
Esther Hellen Lugwisha,
Water Defluoridation Capacity of Tanzanian Kaolin-Feldspar Blend Adsobents, American Journal of Applied Chemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 77-83.
WHO, Fluoride in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva 2004, p. 1-7.
Tiemann, M., Flouride in drinking water: A review of fluoridation and regulations issues: Report for congress congressional research services. 2013, p. 1-21.
Gumbo, F. J. and Mkongo, G., Defluoridation for rural fluoride affected communities in Tanzania. Proceedings of the 1st International workshop on fluorosis and defluoridation of water, Ngurdoto, Tanzania. 1995, p. 109-114.
Ayoob, S. and Gupta, A., Fluoride in drinking water: A review on the status and stress effects: Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 2006, p. 433-487.
Bjorvatn, K and Bårdsen, A., Use of activated clay for defluoridation of water. Proceedings of the 1stInternational workshop on fluorosis and defluoridation of water, Ngurdoto, Tanzania. 1995, p. 49-55.
Fawell, J. K., Bailey, K., Chilton, J., Dahi, E., Fewtrell, L. and Magara, Y., Fluoride in drinking water, World Health Organisation. IWA Publishing, London. 2006, p. 1-134.
Feenstra, L., Vasak, J. and Griffioen, J., Fluoride in groundwater overview and evaluation of removal methods, Report SP 2007-1. International groundwater resources assessment centre, Utrecht. Netherland. 2007, p. 1-21.
Thole, B., Ground water contamination with flouride and potential flouride removal technologies for East and Southern Africa; Perspective in water pollution, Dar, A. I. (Ed.), 2013, p. 65-91.
Lugwisha, E. H. J., Thermal and X-ray investigation of Kowak clay in Northern Tanzania and its possible industrial use. Tanz. J. Sci. 32(2), 2006, p. 81-90.
Al-ani, T. and Sarapaa, O., Clay and clay mineralogy: physical-chemical properties and industrial uses. Geologian Tutkuskeskus. 19, 2008, p. 6-15.
Hassen, A., Selection of clay adsorbents and determination of the optimum condition for defluoridation of ground water in Rift Valley Region. MSc Thesis. 2007, Addis Ababa University.
Harikumar, P. S P., Jaseela, C. and Megha, T., Defluoridation of water using biosorbents. Nat. Sci. 4(4), 2012, p. 245-251.
Vijaya, Y. and Krishnaiah, A., Sorptive response profile of chitosan coated silica in the defluoridation of aqueous solutions. J. Chem. 6(3), 2009, p.713-723.
Waheed, S., Attar, S. and Waghmare, M., Investigation on sorption of fluoride in water using rice husk as an adsorbent. Int. Q. J. 8, 2009, p. 217-223.
Othman, O. C., Philip, J. Y. N. and Nkinda, M. S., Use of activated red clay soil from Kiteto district, Tanzania, as a remedial method for high fluoride levels in drinking water. Int. J. Sci. Technol. Soc. 2(5), 2014, p. 115-120.
Fentanun, A., Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using nano scale aluminium oxide hydroxide. MSc Thesis. 2010, Addis Ababa University.
Anil, K. S. and Manoj, K. S., An innovative technique for removal of fluoride from drinking water. Ambernath India 2, 2012, p. 133-140.
Kefyalew, G., Zewge, F., Hundhammer, B. and Megersa, N., Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils pritend in Ethiopia. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 26, 2012, p. 361-372.