American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 47-54
Received: Jan. 11, 2015;
Published: May 9, 2015
Views 6187 Downloads 362
M. K. Oduola, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Centre for Gas, Refining and Petrochemicals, Institute of Petroleum Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
T. B. Oguntola, Centre for Gas, Refining and Petrochemicals, Institute of Petroleum Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The glaring need for energy management in a petroleum refining industry is as a result of significant refinery energy costs, typically 40-50% of operating costs. Consequently, energy auditing is frequently carried out to identify energy management opportunities for higher profitability. Hydrogen management in a refining plant by means of the hydrogen pinch analysis approach aimed at identifying the optimum hydrogen network has been recognized as an effective way of optimizing the processes. The numerous benefits of hydrogen management include maximum processing revenue as a result of reduced hydrogen system operating costs and production benefits, minimum capital investment, reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and more importantly, up to 20% cost savings from energy efficiency improvements. Hydrogen pinch technology has been employed in this study to discover optimum hydrogen distribution systems which can be a potential energy management opportunity in a refining industry. The goal was to identify shortcomings in the hydrogen distribution of the system so as to improve the energy utilization of the plant. Analysis of the case study resulted in identification of optimum hydrogen target for the system. Achieving the target will reduce the power consumption of the catalytic reforming unit by 10.8% and also help to conserve hydrogen use by more than 20%. Implementation of suggestions for efficient utilization of energy made will increase the profit as well as the operating costs. However, there will be annual increase in marginal revenue as the profit is considerably greater than the operating costs. The payback period and return on investment (ROI) of these suggestions are less than 3yrs and 28% - 44% (depending on the option adopted) respectively. Another significant advantage of the project is that it will reduce the gas flaring and helps prepare the refinery for future environmental challenges.
M. K. Oduola,
T. B. Oguntola,
Hydrogen Pinch Analysis of a Petroleum Refinery as an Energy Management Strategy, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Special Issue: Developments in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Sector of the Oil and Gas Industry.
Vol. 3, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 47-54.
E. Worrell & C. Galitsky, Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2005.
H. Al-Muslim & I. Dincer, Thermodynamic Analysis of Crude Oil Distillation Systems, International Journal of Energy Research 29 pp 637-655, 2005.
M. Wang, H. Lee and J. Molburg, Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineries to Petroleum Products - Implications for Life-Cycle Energy Use and Emission Inventory of Petroleum Transportation Fuels, International Journal Life Cycle Assessment 9(1) 34-44, 2004.
US DOE- OIT, Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S Petroleum Refining Industry. Washington, DC.: Office of Industrial Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, 1998.
A. Zagoria and R. Huycke, Refinery Hydrogen Management – The Big Picture, Hydrocarbon Processing 2(82) 41-46, 2003.
C. Martin, E. Worrell, R. Elliott, A. Shipley and J. Thorne, Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and American Council for Energy-Efficient Economy, Berkeley, CA/Washington DC, 2000.
G.A. Payne, The Energy Manager’s Handbook, IPC Science and Technology Press Ltd, UK, 1997.
Canmet ENERGY, Pinch Analysis: For the Efficient Use of Energy, Water & Hydrogen. Research Centre of Natural Resources, Canada, 2003.
A. McKane, L. Price and C. Stephane, Policies for Promoting Industrial Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries and Transition Economies, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna, 2008.
B. Prindle, M. Eldridge, M. Eckhardt & A. Frederick, The twin pillars of sustainable energy: Synergies between energy efficiency and renewable energy technology and policy, American Council for Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) report, 2007.
World Economic Forum, Towards a More Energy Efficient World, World Economic Forum and IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associate, 2010.
Z.K. Morvay & D.D. Gvezdenac, Applied Industrial Energy & Environment Management, IEEE Press, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Publication, United Kingdom, 2008.
International Energy Outlook, U.S Energy Information Administration, 2011.
A. M. Nelson and Y. A. Liu, Hydrogen-Pinch Analysis Made Easy, Chemical Engineering, 115(6) 56-61, 2008.
A. Viktor and V. Albin, Hydrogen Pinch Analysis of PreemraffGöteborg and PreemraffLysekil, Master’s Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, 2010.
N. Hallale, I. Moore and D. Vauk, Hydrogen Under New Management, Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing, New York, 2006.
S. Ratan and C.F. Vales, Improve your hydrogen potential, Hydrocarbon Processing 3(81) 57-64, 2002.
J.J. Alves, Analysis and Design of Refinery Hydrogen Distribution Systems. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Process Integration, UMIST, Manchester, 1999.
B. Linnhoff, D.W. Townsend, D. Boland, G.F. Hewitt, B.E.A. Thomas, A.R. Guy, R.H Marsland, A User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient Use of Energy, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, UK, 1992.
Linnhoff, The Methodology and Benefits of Total Site Pinch Analysis, 2000.
D.C.Y. Foo, Z.A. Manan, Setting the Minimum Utility Gas Flow rate Targets using Cascade Analysis Technique, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, pp. 5986-5995, 2006.
Fonseca, André, Sá, Vítor, Bento, Hugo, Tavares, L.C. Manuel, Pinto, Gilberto, Gomes & Luísa, Hydrogen Distribution Network Optimization - A Refinery Case Study, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16 (16), 2008.
Energy Commission of Nigeria, Energy Wastages and Potential Savings through Energy Efficiency Programs, 2009a.
Energy Commission of Nigeria, Entrenching Energy Efficiency and Conservation into the Nation’s Energy Development Strategies, 2009b.
Energy Commission of Nigeria, Renewable Energy Master Plan (Revised Draft Edition), 2012.
National Energy Commission, National Energy (Draft), 2014.
World Oil Outlook, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 2013.
R. Sinnot and G. Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, 5th edition, Elsevier, Burlington, 2009.
R. Smith, Chemical Process Design, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York, 1995.
V. Tutterow, Energy Efficiency in Pumping Systems: Experience and Trends in the Pulp and Paper Industry, American Council for Energy Efficient Economy, 1999.
M.B. House, S.B. Lee, H. Weinstein and G. Flickinger, Consider Online Predictive Technology to reduce Electric Motor Maintenance Costs, Hydrocarbon Processing, 7(81) 49-50, 2002.
Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET), High Efficiency Motors for Fans and Pumps, 1994.
Z. Rabiei, Hydrogen Management in Refineries, Petroleum & Coal 54(4) 357-368, 2012.