Chemical Composition, Sensory Evaluation and Starter Activity in Cow, Soy, Peanut and Rice Milk
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 179-186
Received: Aug. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Jan. 3, 2017;
Published: Jan. 13, 2017
Views 2762 Downloads 109
Mohamed Ismail Abou-Dobara, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Magdy Mohamed Ismail, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Nawal Mohamed Refat, Dairy Technology Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
The aim of this work was to study the effect of mixing various levels of soy, peanut or rice milk with cow milk on the chemical composition, sensory attributes, starter activity and culture bacteria counts during fermentation. The results showed that no clear differences in titratable acidity, pH and redox potential (Eh) values were noticed between cow or soy milk while acidity and Eh levels of peanut and rice milk were lower than those of cow milk. Total solids, fat, total protein and ash concentrations of cow milk were slightly higher than those of soy and rice milk. Peanut milk was richer in fat but poorer in ash than cow milk. Color, appearance, smell, taste, mouth feel, texture and body scores of cow milk were higher than those of soy, peanut or rice milk but rice milk gained the highest scores of color and appearance. Incorporation of cow milk with soy or peanut milk improved its sensory evaluation scores. Both acidity ratios and the development of acidity rates within fermentation were higher in cow milk than that of soy, peanut or rice milk. Culture bacteria not only were able to grow in soy, peanut or rice milk but also their numbers and viability were higher in them as compared with cow milk. Furthermore, incorporation of soy, peanut and rice milk with cow milk increased this influence.
Mohamed Ismail Abou-Dobara,
Magdy Mohamed Ismail,
Nawal Mohamed Refat,
Chemical Composition, Sensory Evaluation and Starter Activity in Cow, Soy, Peanut and Rice Milk, American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 179-186.
Y. Shimakawa, S. Matsubara, N. Yuki, M. Ikeda and F. Ishikawa “Evaluation of Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult-fermented soymilk as a probiotic food,” Int. J Food Micro, vol. 81, pp. 131-136, 2003.
M. Yang and L. Li “Physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of probiotic soy yogurt prepared from germinated soybean. Food Technol,” Biotechnol, vol. 48, pp. 490–496, 2010.
Y. C. Wang, R. C. Yu, H. Y. Yang and C. C. Chou “Sugar and acid contents in soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria alone or simultaneously with bifidobacteria,” Food Micro, vol. 20, pp. 333-338, 2003.
Y. H. Pyo and S. M. Song “Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a medicinal soy yogurt containing health-benefit ingredients,” J. Agric. Food Chem, vol. 57, pp. 170-175, 2009.
K. Diarra, Z. G. Nong and C. Jie “Peanut milk and peanut milk based products production: a review,” Critical Review in Food Sci. and Nut., vol. 45, pp. 405- 423, 2005.
M. A. Belewu, K. O. Abdulsalam, K. Belewu and N. Belewu “Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities,” Asian J Agri and Rural Development, vol. 3, pp. 924-928, 2013.
J. K. Ikya, D. I. Gernah, H. E. Ojobo and O. K. Oni “Effect of cooking temperature on some quality characteristics of soy milk,” Advance J of Food Sci. and Tech., vol. 5, pp. 543-546, 2013.
M. Bensmira and B. Jiang “Rheological characteristics and nutritional aspects of novel peanut based kefir beverages and whole milk kefir,” Inter. Food Res. J, vol. 19, pp. 647-650, 2012.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
R. Parmar “Incorporation of acid whey powders in probiotic yoghurt,” M. Sc. Thesis, Major in Biological Sciences, Specialization in Dairy, South Dakota State University, USA, 2003.
T. Y. Tunde-Akintunde and A. Souley “Effect of processing methods on quality of soymilk,” Pakistan J Nut, vol. 8, pp. 1156-1158, 2009.
N. Tharmaraj and N. P. Shah “Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria,” J. Dairy Sci., vol. 86, pp. 2288–2296, 2003.
P. Dinakar and V. V. Mistry “Growth and viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum in Cheddar cheese,” J. Dairy Sci., vol. 77, pp. 2854-2864, 1994.
O. A. Sowonola, T. Y. Tunde- Akintunde and F. Adedeji “Nutritional and sensory qualities of soymilk-kunnu blends, African J Food and Nutritional Sciences,” vol. 5, pp. 1-12, 2005.
Sumarna “Changes of raffinose and stachyose in soy milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria from local fermented foods of Indonesian,” Malaysian J Micro., vol. 4, pp. 26-34, 2008.
S. Jiang, W. Cai and B. Xu “Food quality improvement of soy milk made from short-time germinated soybeans,” Foods, vol. 2, pp. 198-212, 2013.
R. Lakshmanan, M. De Lamballerie and S. Jung “Effect of Soybean-to-Water Ratio and pH on Pressurized Soymilk Properties,” J Food Sci., vol. 71, pp. E384-E391, 2006.
M. O. Elsamania and I. A. M. Ahmed “Physicochemical characteristics and organoleptic properties of peanuts milk-based yoghurt fortified with skimmed milk powder,” J Research in Applied sciences, vol. 1, pp. 68-72, 2014.
J. Isanga and G. Zhang “Production and evaluation of some physicochemical parameters of peanut milk yoghurt,” Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., vol. 42, pp. 1132–1138, 2009.
Giyarto, T. F. Djaafar, E. S. Rahayu and T. Utami “Fermentation of peanut milk by Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 for production of non-dairy probiotic drink,” The 3rd International Conference of Indonesian Society for Lactic Acid Bacteria (3rd IC-ISLAB), 21-22 January, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2011.
E. M. B. Albuquerque, F. A. C. Almeida, J. P. Gomes, N. M. C. Alves and W. P. Silva “Production of ‘‘peanut milk’’ based beverages enriched with umbu and guava pulps. J the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences,” vol. 14, pp. 61–67, 2015.
M. K. Barka, S. Mustafa, M. Kharidah, A. A. Suraini and M. Y. Abdul “A nutritious medida (sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536,” Malaysian J Nutrition, vol. 10, pp. 183-193, 2004.
J. D. Perezgonzalez “Nutritional balance of rice milk,” J Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, 87-90, 2008.
H. M. El Tahir Limia “Microbiological and physiochemical study on Bifidobacterium infantis 20088 fermented peanut milk and rice milk and their blends,” M. Sc. Thesis, College of Graduate Studies, Sudan University of Science& Technology, 2015.
N. A. EL-Boraey, M. M. Ismail, F. A. Hoda Elashrey “Chemical composition, sensory evaluation, rheological properties and starter activity of admixtures of buffalo’s, cow’s and soymilk,” American J Food Sci. and Nut. Res., vol. 2, pp. 119-127, 2015.
E. P. Saidu Janette “Development, evaluation and characterization of protein-isoflavone enriched soymilk,” Ph. D. Thesis, the Department of Food Science, the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 2005.
C. Wongkhalaung and M. Boonyaratanakornkit “Development of a yogurt-type product from Saccharified rice,” Kasetsart J Natural Sci., vol. 34, pp. 107–116, 2000.
N. Benkerroum and A. Y. Tamime “Technology transfer of some Moroccan traditional dairy products (lben, jben and smen) to small industrial scale,” Food Micro., vol. 21, pp. 399–413, 2004.
M. Stijepić, J. Glušac, D. Durđević-Milošević and D. Pešić-Mikulec “Physicochemical characteristics of soy probiotic yoghurt with inulin additon during the refrigerated storage,” Romanian Biotechnological Letters, vol.18, pp. 8077-8085, 2013.
D. Sirirat and P. Jelena “Bacterial inhibition and antioxidant activity of kefir produced from Thai jasmine rice milk,” Biotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 332-337, 2010.
P. Scalabrini, M. Rossi, P. Spettoli and D. Matteuzzi “Characterization of Bifidobacterium strains for use in soymilk fermentation,” Int. J. Food Microbiol, vol. 39, pp. 213-219, 1998.
Z. Hassanzadeh-Rostami, S. M. Mazloomi, S. Rahmdel and A. Kazemi “Mixtures of soy- and cow’s milk as potential probiotic food carriers,” J. Biology and Today’s World, vol. 4, pp. 29-33, 2015.
K. Liu “Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization,” Chapter 4. I: Soymilk & II: Tofu. New York: Chapman and Hall. p. 138-197, 1997.
B. M. Kabeir, S. E. Ibraheem, H. Limia Mohammed and B. T. Bhagiel, Roasted peanut milk partially substituted with millet thin porridge as a carrier for Bifidobacterium longum BaB536,” Int. J Current Microbiology and Applied Science, vol. 4, pp. 299-308, 2015.
Y. Wang, R. Yu and C. Chou “Growth and survival of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria during the fermentation and storage of cultured soymilk drinks,” Food Microbial, vol. 19, pp. 501- 508, 2002.
H. Hagiwara, T. Seki and T. Ariga “The effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on blood glucose and PAI-1 levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem, vol. 68, pp. 444-447, 2004.
S. Tian, K. Nakamura and H. Kayahara “Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice,” J. Agric. Food Chem, vol. 52, pp. 4808-4813, 2004.
B. M. Kabeir, S. Abd Aziz S, M. Muhamed and A. M. Yazid “Growth of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in Media (fermented cereal porridge) and their survival during storage,” Let. Appl. Microbial, vol. l41, 12-131, 2005.