Transesterification and Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Effect of Operation Variables on Fuel Properties
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 154-160
Received: Nov. 17, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 1, 2016; Published: Jan. 5, 2017
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Falah Fahed Banihani, Department of Chemical Engineering, Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Huson, Jordan
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Biodiesel is proved to be the best replacement for diesel because of its unique properties like low toxicity, no sulfur emissions, no particulate matter pollutants, significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and biodegradability. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. It is prepared from waste vegetable oils and animal fats by trans-esterification process. It is alkali catalyzed reaction which involves waste cooking oil, methanol, and potassium hydroxide. The study focus on the physical and chemical properties of waste cooking oil (WCO), transesterification and production of biodiesel from WCO. The operation variables used were methanol/oil molar ratio (5:1-9:1), catalyst concentration (0.5-2.0 wt%), temperature (30-70°C). The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, high heating value, cetane index, cloud and pour points, characteristics of distillation, flash and combustion points, saponification value, and iodine value according to ISO norms. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst (1%), and 60°C temperature. This biodiesel had properties very similar to those of no. 2 diesel.
Trans-Esterification, Biodiesel, Alternative Fuel, Fuel Properties, Waste Oil
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Falah Fahed Banihani, Transesterification and Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Effect of Operation Variables on Fuel Properties, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 154-160. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20160406.13
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