Analysis of Mercury Levels in Agricultural Soils and Citrus Varieties from Benue State, Nigeria
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 65-71
Received: Dec. 17, 2019;
Accepted: Feb. 3, 2020;
Published: May 28, 2020
Views 127 Downloads 69
Shaapera Ugbidye, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Ishaq Shaibu Eneji, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Raymond Wuana, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Rufus Sha’ Ato, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Mercury levels in agricultural soils and three citrus varieties (Washington, Ibadan Sweet and Valencia) in seven (7) local government areas of Benue State were determined using standard techniques. The mean physico-chemical parameters of the soils ranges from: pH (5.20 – 6.10); CEC (10.5 – 12.9 cmolkg-1); organic carbon (2.35 – 3.39%) and organic matter (6.17 – 7.37%). The mean Hg levels in the soils ranges from 20.5 – 21.2 µgkg-1. The mean proximate parameters are: fat in Valencia (0.330%); fibre in Valencia (0.490%); moisture in Valencia (87.4%); ash in Valencia (1.80%) and carbohydrate in Ibadan sweet (17.7%). The mean Hg concentration in the citrus juice ranges from: Washington (0.770 – 6.35 µgkg-1); Ibadan sweet (0.770 – 6.53 µgkg-1) and in Valencia (0.770 – 5.22 µgkg-1). The order of accumulation of Hg in the citrus varieties is Ibadan sweet > Washington > Valencia. The concentrations of Hg in the three citrus fruit juice and soil do not exceed the WHO/FAO permissible limits of 100 and 1000 µgkg-1 for foods and agricultural soils respectively. However, continues monitoring is hereby recommended.
Ishaq Shaibu Eneji,
Rufus Sha’ Ato,
Analysis of Mercury Levels in Agricultural Soils and Citrus Varieties from Benue State, Nigeria, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2020, pp. 65-71.
Morand, C., Claude, D., Dragan, M., Delphine, L., Jean F. M. and Augustin, S. (2011): Herperidins contributes to the vascular protective effect of orange juice, a randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93: 73-80.
Baturh, Y. and Olutola, O. (2016). A Study of the Nutritional Composition of Freshly Squeezed and Processed Orange Juice. Food Science and Quality Management, 48: 126-132.
Ortese, E., Baiyeri, K. P. and Ugese, F. D. (2012). Demographic Features of Citrus Producers and gronomic Management of the Crop in Benue State, Nigeria. PAT, 8: 180-190.
D’Mello, J. P. F. (2003). Food safety. In Contamination and Toxins. CABI Publishing, Willingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge pp. 480-482.
Liu, R. H. (2003). Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. American Society of Clinical Nutrition, 78: 517S–520S.
Han, F. X., Su, Y., Mont, D. L., Waggoner, A. C. and Plodine, J. M. (2006). Binding distribution and plant uptake of mercury in a soil from Oak Ridge, Tennesse, USA. Science Total Environment, 368: 753-768.
Sharma, R. K., Agarwal, M. and Marshall, F. (2007). Heavy metals Contamination of soil & vegetable in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 66: 258 – 266.
Kachenko, A. G. and Singh, B. (2006). Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in urban and metal smelter contaminated sites in Australia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 169: 101-123.
Otitoloju, A. A. (2016). Today’s Apple: perspective of an EnvironmentalToxicologist. 12th Inaugural Lecture, University of Lagos. University of Lagos Press. 1-77pp.
Orisakwe, O. E., Nduka, J. K., Amadi, C. N. Dike, D. O and Bede, O. (2012). Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria. Chemical Central Journal Vol. 6: 77.
Voegborlo, R. B. and Akagi, H. (2007). Determination of mercury in fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using an automatic mercury analyzer. Food Chemistry, 100: 853-858.
Akan, C. J., Audu, L. S., Mohammed, Z. and Ogugbuaja, O. V. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals, pH, organic matter and organic carbon in road side soils in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4: 618-628.
Agbaire, P. O. and Akporhonor, E. E. (2014). Heavy Metal Determination by Sequential Extraction in Agricultural Farmland Soils In Selected Farms In Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8: 47-55.
Ojeka, E. O., Adetoyi, I. and Bako, S. S. (2007). Studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from River water. Bulletin of Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21: 305-313.
Ande, S., Famuyiwa, A. and Iorungwa, M. S. (2015). A preliminary assessment of heavy metals in top soils around WurukumAbbatoir, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research, 6: 144-147.
Pam, A. A., Sha’Ato, R. and Offem, J. O. (2013). Evaluation of heavy metals in soils around auto-mechanics workshop clusters in Gboko and Makurdi, Central Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5: 298-306.
Odoh, R., Dauda, M. S., Oko, O. J. and Lawal, U. (2016). Assessment of physico-chemical properties of soil around Benue Cement companyGboko. Australian Journal of Education and Learning Research, 1: 14-18.
Utsev, T. J., Ajon, T. A. and Ugama, I. T. (2014). Irrigation soil analysis in river Kastina – Ala catchment areas of north central Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4: 2049-3444.
Iyaka, Y. A. and Kakulu, S. E. (2012). Heavy metal concentrations in top agricultural soils around ceramic and pharmaceutical industrial sites in Niger State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 4: 171-176.
Amos-Tautua, B. M. W., Onigbinde, A. O. and Ere, D. (2014). Assessment of some heavy metals and physicochemical properties in surface soils of municipal open waste dumpsite in Yenagoa, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8: 41-47.
Olayinka, O. O., Akande, O. O., Bamgbose, K. and Adetunji, M. T. (2017). Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in soil samples obtained from selected anthropogenic sites in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 21: 883-891.
Odueze, J. C., Nwakonobi, T. U. and Itodo, I. N. (2017). Influence of physic-chemical characteristics of soils on heavy metal contamination in Makurdi, Benue State. Journal of Environmental Science and Food Technology, 11: 84-92.
Ogoloma, J. U., Nkpaa, W. K., Akaninwor, O. J. and Uwakwe, A. A. (2013). Proximate, phytochemical and mineral elements compositions of some edible fruits grown in oil producing community of Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 5: 38-46.
Osarumwense, P. O., Okunrobo, O. L. and Uwumarongie-Ilori, E. G. (2013). Phytochemical analysis of citrus sinensis peel (I) Osbeck. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 17: 47-50.
Wakili, A., Abdukahi, M. B. and Madara, M. S. (2015). Proximate composition of five commonly used horticultural products in Northen Nigeria. International journal of current microbiology and applied sciences, 4: 924-928.
Uraku, A. J. (2015). Nutritional potential of citrus sinensis and vinifera peels. Journal of Advancement in Medical and Life Science, 3: 1-2.
Chuku, E. C. and Akani, N. P. (2015). Determination of proximate composition and microbial contamination of fresh juice from three citrus species. Journal of Biology and Genetic Research, 1: 1-8.
Udochukwu, U., Igweze, A., Udinyiwe, O. C. and Ijeoma, P. N. (2014). Effect of crude oil pollution on orange (citrus) leaves. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3: 58-64.
Ekpete, O. A., Edor, O. S. and Fubara, E. P. (2013). Proximate and mineral composition of some Nigerian fruits. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3: 1447-1454.
Duressa, T. F. and Leta, S. (2015). Determination of levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in soils and some vegetables taken from river Majo water irrigated farmland at Kota village Oromia State, East Ethiopia. International Journal of Sciences, Basic and Applied Research, 21: 352-372.
Tsuwang, K. D., Ajigo, I. O. and Lar, U. A. (2014). Assessment of lead, mercury and arsenic in soils of Anka area, Northwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Science Environment, 3: 187-197.
Agbaji, E. B., Abechi, S. E. and Emmanuel, S. A. (2015). Assessment of heavy metals level of soil in Kakuriindustria area of Kaduna, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 4: 68-78.
Mbe, J. O., Onyekwere, I. N., Ano, A. O., Onweremadu, E. U. and Chukwu, L. I. (2013). Experimental investigation of mercury distribution in polluted soils of Owerri, Southern Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 412-416
World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization (2011). Joint food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods, fifth season. The Hague, 21-25 march, Netherlands.
World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization (2010). Summary and Conclusion, joint FAO/WHO expert committee of food additives.(JECFA/73/Sc) 73rd meeting, Geneva.