Quantification of Pollutant Levels in Water, Sediment and Winkles in Akani Obio Uruan River, Nigeria
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2020, Pages: 45-55
Received: Mar. 19, 2020;
Accepted: Apr. 13, 2020;
Published: Apr. 29, 2020
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Emmanuel Isaac Uwah, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria; International Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (ICEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Emem Michael Edem, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Iboroakam Essien Udosen, Department of Zoology, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria
Essien Daniel Udosen, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria; International Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (ICEESR), University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Okon Monday Udoidiong, Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
The levels of some trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were quantified in water, sediment and two species of winkles (Pachymelania bryonensis and Pachymelania fusca mutans) in Akani Obio Uruan River from August to September 2018 (wet season) and February to March 2019 (dry season), using Varian spectra 100 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The levels of some physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) were equally quantified in water. From the results, Cd level of 0.088 mg/l in water was higher than those of the other trace metals investigated. Accordingly, Cu level of 0.602 mg/kg in sediment was higher than 0.017 mg/kg in water and 0.077 mg/kg in one species of the winkles. Zn level of 0.141 mg/kg in one species of the winkles was higher than those of the other metals. In general, the levels of most of the metals were higher in all the samples during the wet season. This could be attributed to excessive water run-off during the wet season which could have resulted to the leaching of various kinds of wastes into the water bodies. Interestingly, the levels of all the trace metals investigated in all the samples were below the maximum acceptable limits stipulated by WHO and the US environmental protection agency (USEPA). Physicochemical examination revealed that the levels of pH, temperature, TDS, EC, nitrate and sulphate were below the maximum permissible limits set by WHO. The levels of DO and phosphate in the water were however higher. This may have deleterious effect on aquatic ecosystem and the health of the rural dwellers that consumed the winkles and use the river water directly for domestic purposes without treatment.
Emmanuel Isaac Uwah,
Emem Michael Edem,
Iboroakam Essien Udosen,
Essien Daniel Udosen,
Okon Monday Udoidiong,
Quantification of Pollutant Levels in Water, Sediment and Winkles in Akani Obio Uruan River, Nigeria, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2020, pp. 45-55.
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