Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 42-51
Received: May 10, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 25, 2016;
Published: Jul. 23, 2016
Views 5474 Downloads 145
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
Parthasarathi Panda, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 42-51.
Campos CH, Jofre M, Torres CC, Pawelec B, Fierro JLG, Reyes P (2014) Chemoselective hydrogenation of o-, p- and m-chloronitrobenzene at ambient temperature on Au/Fe2O3catalysts Appl Catal A- Gen 482: 127-136.
Shen JM, Chen ZL, Xu ZZ, Li XY, Xu BB, Qi F (2008) Kinetics and mechanism of degradation of p-chloronitrobenzene in water by ozonation. J Hazard Mater 152: 1325-1331.
Elvers B (2014) Nitro compounds, aromatic. Ullmann's Fine Chemicals. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Singh R, Jana S (2015) Characterization of biofield energy treated 3-chloronitrobenzene: Physical, thermal, and spectroscopic studies. J Waste Resources 5: 183.
Gannes LZ, Martinez del Rio C, Koch P (1998) Natural abundance variations in stable isotopes and their potential uses in animal physiological ecology. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Intergr Physiol 119: 725-737.
Schellekens RC, Stellaard F, Woerdenbag HJ, Frijlink HW, Kosterink JG (2011) Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol 72: 879-897.
Muccio Z, Jackson GP (2009) Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analyst 134: 213-222.
Smith RM (2004) Understanding Mass Spectra: A Basic Approach, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, ISBN 0-471-42949-X.
Jürgen H. Gross Mass Spectrometry: A Textbook; Springer: Berlin, (2ndedn), 2004.
Vanhaecke F, Kyser K (2012) Isotopic composition of the elements In Isotopic Analysis: Fundamentals and applications using ICP-MS, 1st Edn., Edited by Vanhaecke F, Degryse P, Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Asperger S (2003) Chemical Kinetics and Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Springer science + Business media, New York.
Meier-Augenstein W (1999) Applied gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 842: 351-371.
Raymond E. March, John F. J. Todd Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry, Volume IV: Theory and instrumentation (2010) CRC press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton.
Skoog DA, Holler FJ, Crouch SR (2007) Principles of instrument analysis, 6th Edn, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Australia.
Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
Klupenger MR (2015) An investigation into the effect of human intention on the weather, Energy Medicine University, Sausalito, California, USA.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Impact of biofield treatment on spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of p-nitroaniline. Insights in Analytical Electrochemistry 1: 1-8.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Physical, thermal and spectroscopical characterization of biofield treated triphenylmethane: An impact of biofield treatment. J Chromatogr Sep Tech 6: 292.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Physicochemical and spectroscopic characteristics of biofield treated p-chlorobenzophenone. American Journal of Physical Chemistry 4: 48-57.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Singh R, Jana S (2015) An impact of biofield treatment on spectroscopic characterization of pharmaceutical compounds. Mod Chem Appl 3: 159.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Spectroscopic characterization of disulfiram and nicotinic acid after biofield treatment. J Anal Bioanal Tech 6: 265.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Latiyal O, Jana S (2015) Physical, atomic and thermal properties of biofield treated lithium powder. J Adv Chem Eng 5: 136.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Impact of biofield treatment on physical, structural and spectral properties of antimony sulfide. Ind Eng Manage 4: 165.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after bio field treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on physical, thermal, and spectral properties of SFRE 199-1 mammalian cell culture medium. Advances in Biochemistry 3: 77-85.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of biofield energy treated protose. American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 3: 104-110.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Morphological characterization, quality, yield and DNA fingerprinting of biofield energy treated alphonso mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 3: 245-250.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) Agronomic characteristics, growth analysis, and yield response of biofield treated mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts. International Journal of Genetics and Genomics 3: 74-80.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Gangwar M, Jana S (2015) In Vitro evaluation of biofield treatment on cancer biomarkers involved in endometrial and prostate cancer cell lines. J Cancer Sci Ther 7: 253-257.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) An impact of biofield treatment: Antimycobacterial susceptibility potential using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB system. Mycobact Dis 5: 189.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Mondal SC, Jana S (2015) Antibiogram of biofield-treated Shigella boydii: Global burden of infections. Science Journal of Clinical Medicine 4: 121-126.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Quantitative determination of isotopic abundance ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in biofield energy treated ortho and meta toluic acid isomers. American Journal of Applied Chemistry 3: 217-223.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Characterization of physico-chemical and spectroscopic properties of biofield energy treated 4-bromoacetophenone. American Journal of Physical Chemistry 4: 30-37.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Thermal, spectroscopic and chromatographic characterization of biofield energy treated benzophenone. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 3: 109-114.
Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Saikia G, Jana S (2015) Investigation of isotopic abundance ratio of biofield treated phenol derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatograph Separat Techniq S6: 003.
Meija J, Coplen TB, Berglund M, Brand WA, De Bievre P, Groning M, Holden NE, Irrgeher J, Loss RD, Walczyk T, Prohaska T (2016) Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 88: 293-306.
Clayton D (2003) Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: Hydrogen to Gallium, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Balantekin AB (2013) Neutrinos and rare isotopes Journal of Physics: Conference Series 445 012022.
Domogatskii GV, Nadezhin DK (1978) Neutrino production of bypassed isotopes, and the possible role of neutrinos in nucleosynthesis. Astron Zh 55: 516-530.
Rogers, M (1986) "Science of Unitary Human Beings." In V. M. Malinski (ed.) Explorations of Martha Rogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings. Norwark: Appleton Century Crofts.
Jenkins L (2011) Healing in the present moment. ISBN 978-1-257-77329-9.
de Climont J (2016) The worldwide list of dissident scientists, ISBN 978-2-9024-2517-4.
Carr Jr. RW, Walters WD (1966) The hydrogen isotope effect in the thermal decomposition of cyclobutane. J Am Chem Soc 88: 884-887.
Lomas JS, Thorne MP (1982) Structure and isotope effects upon the thermal decomposition of carbamates of highly congested tertiary alcohols. J Chem Soc, Perkin Trans 2 221-226.
Makhatadze GI, Clore GM, Gronenborn AM (1995) Solvent isotope effect and protein stability. Nat Struct Biol 2: 852 - 855.
Schramm VL (1998) Enzymatic transition states and transition state analog design. Annu Rev Biochem 67: 693-720.
Cleland WW (2003) The use of isotope effects to determine enzyme mechanisms. J Biol Chem 278: 51975-51984.