An Index Approach to Metallic Pollution in Groundwater Sources of South Region of Pemba Island
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 12-21
Received: Feb. 13, 2016; Accepted: Feb. 24, 2016; Published: Mar. 7, 2016
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Authors
Abdul A. J. Mohamed, Department of Natural Sciences, the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Ibrahim Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Science (FOS), Universiti Brunei Darussalam JalanTungku, Brunei Darussalam, Brunei
Lee H. Lim, Faculty of Science (FOS), Universiti Brunei Darussalam JalanTungku, Brunei Darussalam, Brunei
Sara A. Khamis, Department of Natural Sciences, the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Haji Mwevura, Department of Natural Sciences, the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Kombo H. Mbwana, Department of Natural Sciences, the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar, Tanzania
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Abstract
The South Region of Pemba is one of the two Regions in Pemba Island. Residents within the region depend on groundwater as the main water source for the domestic and other social purposes. This study was conducted to assess the quality of drinking water in different areas of South region of Pemba. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in the study area, 17 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. In each water sample, four physicochemical parameters were analyzed, namely, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and turbidity. For the case of metals, eleven metals, namely, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr (III), Li, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn were analyzed using standard procedures. The dataobtained were then compared with the available WHO and or USEPA drinking water standards. All the samples had EC and TDS within the recommended limits, while 53% and 29% of the samples had higher turbidity levels and lower pH, respectively than the WHO recommended guidelines. All the samples contained Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn within the maximum admissible limits. According to heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), only one area (Mgonanje-1) showed alarming risks. In most water samples, the ratio of concentrations of Li to Ni was greater than 1, while all Sr to Mg ratios were less than 1. Generally, the values of the analyzed physico-chemical parameters were within the recommended maximum admissible limits. However, the study recommends the stakeholders and other responsible authorities to take appropriate and corrective measures for the water sources located at the Mgonanje area.
Keywords
Mgonanje, Alarming Risks, Li/Ni Ratio, Sr/Mg Ratio, HPI, HEI, Pemba Island
To cite this article
Abdul A. J. Mohamed, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman, Lee H. Lim, Sara A. Khamis, Haji Mwevura, Kombo H. Mbwana, An Index Approach to Metallic Pollution in Groundwater Sources of South Region of Pemba Island, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 12-21. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160402.11
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Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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