Soxhlet Extraction and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Extracted Oil from Pistacia Atlantica Kurdica Nuts and Optimization of Process Using Factorial Design of Experiments
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 122-126
Received: Nov. 17, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 29, 2015;
Published: Dec. 16, 2015
Views 3411 Downloads 96
Atena Ghaderi, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
Bahram Ebrahimi, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
Follow on us
Chemical constituents of extracted oil from the nut of Pistacia atlantica kurdica (dried and fresh samples) - which grows in some regions of Kurdistan province in Iran - were extracted by using soxhlet method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main goal of this study was qualitative analysis of extracted compounds and optimization of extraction conditions. At three extraction times (7h, 11h and 13h) and with two solvents (n-hexane and methanol), soxhlet extractions were carried out. Extraction time and type of solvents were selected as two important factors. A general full factorial design with selected factors was used. The study reveals that n-hexane extracted more yield than methanol. The highest yield obtained with n-hexane, was 33.59%; while the highest yield obtained by methanol was 3.85%. The results show that when extraction is done by n-hexane, by increasing the extraction time up to 11h, the mass yield percent was also increased. The obtained chromatograms were showed that by increasing the extraction time up to 13h, the main extracted compounds were maintained but compounds with low quantities have been eliminated. The main compounds identified were alpha-pinene, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid ester. The main identified compounds were nearly similar to dried and fresh samples. This study can be considered as the firs report on the chemical compounds of extracted oil from nut of Pistacia atlantica kurdica in studied region.
Pistacia Atlantica Kurdica, Soxhlet, Oil Extraction
To cite this article
Soxhlet Extraction and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Extracted Oil from Pistacia Atlantica Kurdica Nuts and Optimization of Process Using Factorial Design of Experiments, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 122-126.
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Wheelwrigh E. G., "Medicinal Plants and their History", Dover Publications, New York (1974).
Gottlieb O. R., Kaplan M. A., Borin M. R., "Biodiversidade um Enfoque Quimio-biológico" Editora UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (1996).
De Rougemont G. M., "A field guid to the crops of Britain and Europe", Collins (1989).
Vasslios P., Papageorgiou A. N., Mellidis A. S., The Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Mastic Gum, J. Essent. Oil Res. 3(2): 107-110 (1991).
Castola V., Bighelli A., Casanova J., Intraspecific Chemical Variability of the Essential Oil of Pistachia lentiscus L. from Corsica, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 28(1): 79-88 (2000).
Papageorgiou V. P., Sagredos A. N., Moser R., GLC-MS Computer Analysis of The Essential Oil of Mastic Gum, Chemica Chronika, New Series. 10: 119-124 (1981).
Mgiatis P., Melliou E., Skaltsounis A. L., Chinou L. B., Mitaku. S., Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, Planta Medica. 65(8): 749-752 (1999).
Valérie C., Recent extraction techniques for solid matrices-supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized fluid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction: their potential and pitfalls, Analyst, 126(7): 1182-1193 (2001).
Maziar h., Study of herb diversity in the zagros forest (Case study: Kurdistan province), Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res. (IJABBR). 1(1): 25-34 (2013).
De Hoffmann E., Stroobant V., "Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications", Wiley and Sons (2007).
Sharifi M. S., GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the trunk exudates from Pistacia atlantica kurdica, J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 3(8): 1364-1367 (2011).