Determination of the Level of Selected Heavy Metals from Khat Leaves (Cata Edulis Forsk) Grown in Gidolle, Konso and Koyira, Southern Ethiopia
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 115-121
Received: Nov. 5, 2015;
Accepted: Nov. 16, 2015;
Published: Dec. 10, 2015
Views 4006 Downloads 133
Sleshi Fentie Tadesse, Analytical Chemistry Stream, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Worku Lakew Kebede, Physical Chemistry Stream, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Sleshi Fentie Tadesse,
Worku Lakew Kebede,
Determination of the Level of Selected Heavy Metals from Khat Leaves (Cata Edulis Forsk) Grown in Gidolle, Konso and Koyira, Southern Ethiopia, Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 115-121.
Tilahun, E. (2009). Determination of trace metals in commercially available khat (Catha edulis Forsk) in Addis Ababa. M. sc. thesis. Addis Ababa University. 33-42.
Elmi, As. (1983). Khat: Effects of khat on resting and fatigued subjects. Proceedings of an International Conference in Khat. Antananarivo, Madagascar, 153-158.
Ireri, S.M. (2014). Determination of the Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Soil and in Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) Grown in Kenya. M.Sc thesis. Kenyatta University. 8-20.
Graziani, M., Milella, M. and Nencini, P. (2008). Khat chewing from apharmacological point of view: An update. Substance Use and Misuse, 43:762–783.
Lemessa, D. (2001). Khat (Catha edulis): Botany, distribution, cultivation, usage and economics in Ethiopia. UN-Emergences units for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. 3.
Atlabachew, M., Chandravanshi, B. S. and Redi, M. (2010).Concentration Levels of Essential and Non-essential Metals in Ethiopian Khat (Catha edulis Forsk). Biol Trace Elem Res, 138:316–325.
Al-Motarreb, A., Baker. K. and Broadley, K. J. (2002). Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen. Phytotherapy Research, 16:403–413.
Saha, S and Dollery, C. (2006). Severe is chaemic cardiomyopathy associated with chat chewing. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 99:316–318.
Milanovic, B. (2008). Qat expenditures in Yemen and Djibouti: An empirical analysis. Journal of African Economies, 17:661.
Belew, M., Kebede, D., Kassaye, M. and Enguoselassie, F. (2000). Themagnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socioeconomicstatus. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 38:11–26.
Atlabachew, M., Chandravanshi, B. S. and Redi, M. (2011). Profile of major, minor and toxic metals in soil and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) caltivars inEthiopia. Treads in Applied Science Research, 6:640-655.
Tan, K.H. (1996). Soil Sampling Preparation and Analysis. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Grusak, M.A., Penna, D.D., (1999). The nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 50:133–161.
Nartey, V. K., Haizel, H., Doamekpor, L. K. and Dankyi, E. (2012). Studies on the contribution of fertilizers to heavy metal levels in soils and cocoa from some cocoa farms in the western region of Ghana. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2:111-120.
ATSDR (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. department of health andhuman services, public health service, Atlanta, GA. Case No. 7439-92-1.
Sharma, P. and Dubey, R. S. (2005). Lead toxicity in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17:35-52.
Kabata-Pendias, A., (2004). Soil plant transfer of trace elements- an environmental issue. Geoderma, 122:143-149.
Nouri, J.N., Khorasani. B., Lorestani. M., Karami, A.H., Hassani and Yousefi, N. (2009). Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and uptake by plant species with phytoremediation potential. Environ. Earth Sci., 59:315-323.
Matloob, M. H. (2003). Determination of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in Yemeni khat by anode stripping voltammetry. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 9:28-36.
Raskin, I., Kumar, P.B.A., Dushenkov, S., Salt, D.E. (1994). Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 5:285–290.
Beyene, D.(1988). Soil fertility research on some Ethiopian Vertisols. In: Jutzi SC, Haque I, McIntire J, Stares JES (eds) Management of Vertisols in sub-Saharan Africa. Proceedings of a Conference Held at ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.223–231.
Itanna, F., Brever, J., Olsson, M. (2008). The fate and bioavailability of trace elements applied to two vegetables farms in Addis Ababa. Afr J Agric Res, 3:797–807.
National Research Council. (1989). Recommended dietary allowance, 10th edn. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Ayenew, A., Gebremariam, B., 1 Ephrem, E. (2014).Levels of essential and toxic metals in Ethiopian khat, (catha edulis forsk.). Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, 7(3): 289 – 297.
Fenta, A.D., Kidanemariam, A.A. (2015). Profile of Essential and Non-Essential Metals in Soil and in Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk) Leaves Cultivated in Southern Region, Ethiopia. Chem Sci J., 6:3.
Ruqia, N., Muslim, K., Muhammad, M., Hameed,Ur R., Naveed,Ur R.,Surrya, S., Nosheen, A., Muhammad, S., Mohib, U., Muhammad, R.,Zeenat, S.,(2015). Accumulation of Heavy Metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-chemical parameters of soil and water Collected from Tanda Dam kohat. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 7(3), 89-97.