A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications
Volume 3, Issue 3-1, June 2015, Pages: 7-16
Received: Dec. 9, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 29, 2014;
Published: Feb. 14, 2015
Views 3582 Downloads 388
Chi-Cong Nguyen, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Thi-Hong-Hieu Le, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Phat-Tai Tran, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
The effect of thickness of the symmetric NACA 4-digit airfoil series on self starting of a 1kW three blades H-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is the main objective of this study. A sliding interface technique was used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow around VAWT model by solving the Reynolds Average Navier-Strokes equation with k-e Realizable turbulent model. A novel CFD-dynamic coupling model is proposed to solve the dynamic of VAWT. In this model, while the aerodynamic force acting on the VAWT blades is solved by CFD, the torque of the generator and the dynamic friction force at the bearing applying on the axis of VAWT are modelled vie their physical characteristics. The during time to rotate an angle of 120° of VAWT is one of the principle parameters to investigate the self starting capability. The effect of the starting azimuth angle of blade, the wind velocity and the geometry of the airfoil (NACA 0012, 0015, 0018, 0021) on self starting capability are analysed. The qualitative result show that the considered VAWT has the highest self starting capability when the starting azimuth angle of blade is in the range of [90°÷100°] and it has the lowest self starting capability when the starting azimuth angle is in the range of [45°÷60°]. By using the CFD-dynamic coupling model and by comparing the aerodynamic moment of the wind on the steady three blades to the static friction moment, the considered VAWT rotate at the starting wind velocity of 4 m/s, 3.5 m/s, 3m/s and 3 m/s for NACA 0012, 0015, 0018 and 0021 respectively. The VAWT has the lowest self starting capability with the configuration of NACA 0012 and has the highest capability with NACA 0021.
A Numerical Study of Thickness Effect of the Symmetric NACA 4-Digit Airfoils on Self Starting Capability of a 1kW H-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications. Special Issue: Transportation Engineering Technology — Part Ⅱ.
Vol. 3, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 7-16.
J. H. Strickland, “The Darrieus Turbine: A Performance Prediction Model Using Multiple Streamtubes”, Sandia National Labs, Rept. SAND75-0431, Albuquerque, NM, 1975.
I. Paraschivoiu, “Double-Multiple Streamtube Model for Studying Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines”, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 4, 1988, pp. 370–377.
H. Glauert, “Airplane propellers”, Aerodynamic Theory, vol. 4. New York: Dover Publication Inc, 1963. Division L, pp. 169-360.
J. H. Strickland, B. T. Webster, and T. Nguyen, “A vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental Study”, Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 101, 1979, pp. 500–505.
F. N. Coton, D. Jiang, and R. A. M. Galbraith, “An Unsteady Prescribed Wake Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A, Journal of Power and Energy, Vol. 208, 1994, pp. 13–20.
M. O. L. Hansen, and D. N. Sørensen, “CFD Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine”, Wind Energy for the New Millennium—Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2–6 July 2001.
C. J. Simão Ferreira, H. Bijl, G. van Bussel, and G. van Kuik, “Simulating Dynamic Stall in a 2D VAWT: Modeling Strategy, Verification and Validation with Particle Image Velocimetry Data”, Journal of Physics. Conference Series, Vol. 75, 2007, Paper 012023.
M. Raciti Castelli, A. Englaro, and E. Benini, “The Darrieus Wind Turbine: Proposal for a New Performance Prediction Model based on CFD”, Energy 36, 2011, pp. 4919-4934.
K. Horiuchi, I. Ushiyama, and K. Seki, “Straight Wing Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: a Flow Analysis”, Wind Engineering, Vol. 29, 2005, pp. 243–252.
A. Iida, K. Kato, and A. Mizuno, “Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow and Aerodynamic Performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with LES”, 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Crown Plaza, Gold Coast, Australia, 2-7 December 2007.
R. Dominy, P. Lunt, A. Bickerdyke, and J. Dominy, “Self Starting Capability of a Darrieus Turbine”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A, Journal of Power and Enery, Vol. 221, 2006, pp. 111–120.
B. Habtamu, and Y. Yingxua, “Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow to Show Self Starting of Veritcal Axis Wind Turbine Using Fluent”, Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, 2011, pp. 962–970.
B. Habtamu, and Y. Yingxua, “Effect of Camber Airfoil on Self Starting of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine”, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 302–312.
V.T. Nguyen, C.C Nguyen, T.H.H. Le, “Optimal aerodynamic design and generator matching for VAWT of 1kW using DMST method”, Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, ISSN: 1859-4263, Vol. 7&8 - 9/2013, pp. 179-184.
K. E. Johnson, and L. J. Fingersh “Methods for Increasing Region 2 Power Capture on a Variable Speed HAWT”, Proceedings of the 23rd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, 2004, pp. 103–113.
A. Kazumasa, M. Baku, Nagai, and N. R. Jitendro, “Design of a 3 kW Wind Turbine Generator with Thin Airfoil Blades”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 32, 2008, pp. 1723–1730.