Occurrence of High Acetic Acid-Producing Bacteria in Ivorian Cocoa Fermentation and Analysis of Their Response to Fermentative Stress
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 70-79
Received: Mar. 30, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 15, 2015; Published: May 5, 2015
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Souleymane Soumahoro, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Honoré Gnenéquidou Ouattara, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Bernadette Gblossi Goualié, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Gisèle Koua, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Ginette Doue, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Sébastien Lamine Niamke, Laboratory of Biotechnology, UFR Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
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Acetic acid produced during cocoa fermentation impact strongly the quality of fermented and dried cocoa beans and chocolate. The objective of this study was to analyze acid production in Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and their response to fermentative conditions. AAB strains were isolated from cocoa fermentation and screened for acid production on both solid and liquid media. From 444 isolates, 15 strains yielded 2 to 38.1 g/L of acid in liquid medium. The best acid producers were identified by biochemical typing as Acetobactersp, Acetobacteraceti, A. peroxydans, A. pasteurianus and Gluconobacteroxydans. Most AAB strains showed strong tolerance to alcohol with round 45% of survival growth rate (SGR) under 12 % ethanol. AAB strains growing well at 2 % acetic acid (SGRround 47 %), failed to grow at 3 % of this acid. Lactic acid has the most hindering effect on AAB growth, provoking a drop of SGR from 100 % to less than 25 % at only 1 % of lactic acid. Maximum growth of acidifying AAB strains occurred at 35 °C. This study evidences the diversity of technological performances of AAB involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation and allows targeting the most valuable strains as starters.
AAB Growth, Acetic Acid Production, Acetobacter, Cocoa Fermentation, Stress Tolerance
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Souleymane Soumahoro, Honoré Gnenéquidou Ouattara, Bernadette Gblossi Goualié, Gisèle Koua, Ginette Doue, Sébastien Lamine Niamke, Occurrence of High Acetic Acid-Producing Bacteria in Ivorian Cocoa Fermentation and Analysis of Their Response to Fermentative Stress, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 70-79. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20150303.12
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