This study is aimed at compiling the toxicological aspects of organochlorine compounds (OCCs) including pesticides among different animal models. Tests on animal species like Mean Probable Effect Concentration Quotient (PEC-Q) test, DNA repair assays and histopathological examinations have shown positive results for the toxicity of organochlorine pesticides. The results were observed on different animals including fishes, furseals, frogs, rats, bats and humans. In fishes, endosulfan is found to have acute toxicities. Similarly, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids and microbial insecticides were also found to show their toxic effects. Some compounds such as lambda-cyhalothrin showed a very high toxicity on fish followed by fenvalerate, deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Exposure to OCCs can impart foe cell death by inducing Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway (MAPK) which is associated with cell growth differentiation and apoptosis. On studying the genotoxic effects of OCCs on germ cells of mouse, it was observed that a lethal mutation can occur just after one mating interval. Increase in the number of micronucleated cells has also been seen after OCC exposure. Neuro-behavioural studies on rats showed the presence of tremors caused by chlordecone and p,p’DDT. Tumorigenicity by organochlorine pesticides is seen to be an epigenetic mechanism in a DNA repair assay. Acute poisoning was seen in liver, kidney and testis of albino rat due to the toxic effect of dursban and DDT. Great declines in populations have been seen due to OCC toxicity in different animal species. Direct and indirect exposure to these compounds should be reduced so as to minimize the possible health hazards.
Swarndeep Singh Hundal,
Toxic Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides: A Review, American Journal of BioScience. Special Issue: Recent Trends in Experimental Toxicology.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2016, pp. 11-18.
Echobichon D J, Klaasen C D, ed Cassarett, Doull’s toxicology: Toxic effects of pesticides. The Basic Science of Poisons 5th edition, New York, 1996; 649.
Russell PF, Epstein S S: DDT toxicity. Science, 1972; 177: 387-388.
Shaffi S: DDT toxicity, gluconeogenic enzymes and non-specific phosphomonoesterases in three teleosts. Toxicol Lett, 1982; 13: 11-15.
Shaffi SA, Dubey R P: DDT toxicity: variations in tissue non-specific phosphomonoesterases and gluconeogenic enzymes in three teleosts. Acta Physiol Hung, 1989; 74: 57-62.
Jaga K, Duvvi H: Risk reduction for DDT toxicity and carcinogenesis through dietary modification. J R Soc Promot Health, 2001; 121: 107-113.
Lotufo GR, Farrar JD, Duke BM, Bridges T S: DDT toxicity and critical body residue in the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus in exposures to spiked sediment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2001; 41: 142-150.
De P C, Trimble A J, Maul J D, Lydy M J: Ecological bioavailability of permethrin and p,p'-DDT: toxicity depends on type of organic matter resource. Chemosphere, 2014; 96: 67-73.
Boyd E M, de Castro: Protein-deficient diet and DDT toxicity. Bull World Health Organ, 1968; 38: 141-150.
EPA, Environmental protection Agency 1975 http://www2.epa.gov/aboutepa/ddt-ban-takes-effect. Cited on Nov. 2nd, 2015.
Khayat R, Dupuy A, Panse I, Bagot M, Cordoliani F: Sclerodermatous changes in porphyria cutanea tarda: six cases. Ann Dermatol Venereol, 2013; 140: 589-597.
Wallaeys E, Thierling U, Lang E, Neumann NJ, Frank J (Toxicol Lett 2292014). [Porphyria cutanea tarda with sclerodermatous changes and hemochromatosis]. Hautarzt 65: 272-27425.
Andersen J, Gjengedal E, Sandberg S, Raheim M: A skin disease or blood disease or something in between, an exploratory focus group study of patients experiences with porphyria cutanea tarda. Br J Dermatol, 2015; 172: 223-229.
Booth N H, Mc Dowells J R: Toxicity of hexachlorobenzene and associated residues in edible animal tissue. JAM Vet Med Association, 1975; 166(6): 591-595.
Song L, Zhao J, Jin X, Li Z, Newton IP, Liu W, Xiao H, Zhao M: The organochlorine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane induces colorectal cancer growth through Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. Toxicol Lett, 2014; 229: 284-291.
Arrebola J P, Belhassen H, Artacho-Cordon F, Ghali R, Ghorbel H, Boussen H, Perez-Carrascosa F M, Exposito J, Hedhili A, Olea: Risk of female breast cancer and serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: a case-control study in Tunisia. Sci Total Environ, 2015; 520: 106-113.
Kim SA, Kim KS, Lee YM, Jacobs DR, Lee DH: Associations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls with total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in elders with differing fat mass. Environ Res, 2015; 138: 1-7.
Koutros S, Langseth H, Grimsrud TK, Barr DB, Vermeulen R, Portengen L, Wacholder S, Beane Freeman LE, Blair A, Hayes RB, Rothmann N, Engel L S : Prediagnostic Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank Cohort. Environ Health Perspect, 2015; 123(9): 867-72.
Lewis-Mikhael AM, Olmedo-Requena R, Martinez-Ruiz V, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Jimenez-Moleon J J: Organochlorine pesticides and prostate cancer, Is there an association? A meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. Cancer Causes Control, 2015; 26(10): 1375-92.
Parada H, Jr. Wolff MS, Engel LS, White AJ, Eng SM, Cleveland RJ, Khankari NK, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Gammon M D: Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer. Int J Cancer, 2015; doi: 10.1002/ijc.29806. [Epub ahead of print]
Rivero J, Luzardo OP, Henriquez-Hernandez LA, Machin RP, Pestano J, Zumbado M, Boada LD, Camacho M, Valeron P F: In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case-control study. Sci Total Environ, 2015; 537: 197-202.
Dierauf, Gulland: Marine Mammal Medicine, 2001; CRC Press.
Colabuono FI, Taniguchi S, Montone RC: Organochlorine contaminants in albatrosses and petrels during migration in South Atlantic Ocean. Chemosphere, 2012; 86(7): 701-8.
Salem A, Sikaily A, Nemr A: Organochlorines and their risk in marine shellfish collected from the Mediterranean coast, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 2014, 40: 93–101.
Zhou HY, Cheung RY, Wong MH: Residues of organochlorines in sediments and tilapia collected from inland water systems of Hong Kong. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 1999; 36: 424-431.
Wang Y, Qiu YL, Fei Y, Li L, Zhu ZL, Zhao JF, Yao EQ, Yao Y X: Measurement and preliminary human health risk assessment of representative organochlorines in farmed Mandarin fish. Huan Jing Ke Xue, 2011; 32: 2385-2390.
Tao Y, Pan L, Zhang H, Tian S: Assessment of the toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2013; 93: 22-30.
Phillips PJ, Nowell LH, Gilliom R J, Nakagaki N, Murray KR, Van Alstyne C: Composition, distribution and potential toxicity of organochlorine mixtures in bed sediments of streams. Sci Total Environ, 2010; 408: 594-606.
Veses O, Mosteo R, Ormad M P, Ovelleiro J L: Potential toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Erbo River in Spain. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2012; 88: 644-650.
Deribe E, Rosseland B O, Borgstrom R, Salbu B, Gebremariam Z, Dadebo E, Skipperud L, Eklo O M: Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Lake Awassa in the Ethiopian Rift Valley: human health risks. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2014; 93: 238-244.
Yohannes YB, Ikenaka Y, Saengtienchai A, Watanabe KP, Nakayama S M, Ishizuka M: Concentrations and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in edible fish species from a Rift Valley lake-Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2014; 106: 95-101.
Yohannes YB, Ikenaka Y, Nakayama S M, Ishizuka M: Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia. Environ Pollut, 2014; 192: 121-128.
Zhang Y, Lin N, Su S, Shen G, Chen Y, Yang C, Li W, Shen H, Huang Y, Chen H, Wang X, Liu W, Tao S: Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method. Environ Pollut, 2014; 191: 250-252.
Byrne S, Miller P, Waghiyi V, Buck C L, von Hippel F A, Carpenter D O: Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Exposure Related to a Formerly Used Defense Site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Data from Sentinel Fish and Human Sera. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 2015; 78: 976-992.
Cui L, Ge J, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Wang J: Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 [Epub ahead of print].
Wang J, Liang W, Henkelmann B, Pfister G, Schramm KW: Organochlorine pesticides accumulated by SPMD-based virtual organisms and feral fish in Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environ Pollut, 2015; 202: 160-167.
Rahmawati S, Margana G, Yoneda M, Oginawati K: Organochlorine pesticide residue in Catfish (Clarias sp.) collected from local fish cultivation at Citarum watershed, West Java Province, Indonesia. Proced Env Sci, 2013; 17: 3-10.
Capkin E, Altinok I, Karahan S: Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to rainbow trout. Chemosphere, 2006; 64: 1793–1800.
Mittal P K, Adak T, Sharma V P: Acute toxicity of certain organochlorine, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethhroid and microbial insecticides to the mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis). Indian J malarial, 1991; 28: 167-170.
Salvo LM, Bainy AC, Ventura EC, Marques MR, Silva J R, Klemz C, Silva de Assis H C: Assessment of the sub lethal of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Environ Sci Health Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng, 2012; 47: 1652-1658.
Da Cuna R H, Rey V G, Piol M N, Guerrero N V, Maggese M C, Lo Nostro F L: Assessment of the acute toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, perciformes). Ecotoxical Environ Saf, 2011; 74: 1065–1073.
Thies M L, Thies K, McBee K: Organochlorine pesticide accumulation and genotoxicity in Mexican free tailed bats from Oklarhoma and New Mexico. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 1996; 30: 178-187.
Wang D, Shelver WL, Atkinson S, Mellish J A, Li Q X: Tissue distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and potential toxicity to Alaskan northern fur seals assessed using PCBs congener specific mode of action schemes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2010; 58: 478-488.
Sharma H, Zhang P, Barber D S, Liu B: Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and lindane induce cooperative toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Role of Oxidative stress, Neurotoxicology, 2010; 31: 215-222.
Pelletier G, Masson S, Wade MJ, Nakai J, Alwis R, Mohottalage S, Kumaranthasan P, Black P, Bowers W J, Chu I, Vincent R: Contribution of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides to the toxicityn of a contaminant mixture based on Canadian arctic population blood profiles. Toxicol left, 2009; 184: 176-185.
Yu H, Yang K: Mechanism of mitogen- activated protein kinase pathway in male reproductive toxicity induced organochlorine pesticides. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, 2007; 36: 756-8, 762.
Pandey N, Gundevia F, Prem A S, Ray P K: Studies on the genotoxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide, in mammalian germ cells. Mutat Res, 1990; 242: 1-7.
Tilson HA, Hong JS, Mactutus C F: Effect of 5, 5- diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin) on neurobehavioral toxicity of organochlorine insecticides and permethrin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1985; 233: 285-289.
Maslansky C J, Williams G M: Evidence for an epigenetic mode of action in organochlorine pesticides hepatocarcinogenicity, a lack of genotoxicity in rat, mouse and hamster hepatocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health, 1981; 8: 121-130.
Mikhail TH, Aggour N, Awadallah R, Boulos MN, El-dessoukey E, Karima A L: Acute toxicity of organophosphorus and organochlorine insecticides in laboratory animals. Z Ernahrungswiss, 1979; 18: 258-268.
Cardenas-Gonzalez M, Gaspar-Ramirez O, Perez-Vazquez FJ, Alegria-Torres JA, Gonzalez- Amaro R, Perez-Maldonado IN: p,p'-DDE, a DDT metabolite, induces proinflammatory molecules in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells "in vitro". Exp Toxicol Pathol, 2013; 65: 661-665.
Byard JL, Paulsen SC, Tjeerdema RS, Chiavelli D: DDT, chlordane, toxaphene and PCB residues in Newport Bay and Watershed: assessment of hazard to wildlife and human health. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol, 235: 49-168.
Everett CJ, Thompson OM: Association of DDT and heptachlor epoxide in human blood with diabetic nephropathy. Rev Environ Health, 2015; 30: 93-97.
Pavlikova N, Smetana P, Halada P, Kovar J: Effect of prolonged exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDT and DDE on protein expression in human pancreatic beta cells. Environ Res, 2015; 142: 257-263.
Strong AL, Shi Z, Strong MJ, Miller DF, Rusch DB, Buechlein AM, Flemington EK, McLachlan JA, Nephew KP, Burow ME, Bunnell BA: Effects of the endocrine-disrupting chemical DDT on self-renewal and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Environ Health Perspect, 2015; 123: 42-48.
Wong LI, Labrecque MP, Ibuki N, Cox ME, Elliott JE, Beischlag TV: p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) repress prostate specific antigen levels in human prostate cancer cell lines. Chem Biol Interact, 2015; 230: 40-49.
Shaw I, Burke E, Suharyanto F, Sihombing G: Residues of p,p'-DDT and hexachlorobenzene in human milk from Indonesian women. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2000; 7(2): 75-7.
Smith D: Worldwide trends in DDT levels in human breast milk. Int J Epidemiol, 1999; 28: 179-188.
Shaw I, Burke E, Suharyanto F, Sihombing G: Residues of p,p'-DDT and hexachlorobenzene in human milk from Indonesian women. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2000; 7: 75-77.
Dorner G, Plagemann A: DDT in human milk and mental capacities in children at school age: an additional view on PISA 2000. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 2002; 23: 427-431.
Wong MH, Leung AO, Chan JK, Choi MP: A review on the usage of POP pesticides in China, with emphasis on DDT loadings in human milk. Chemosphere, 2005; 60: 740-752.
Zimmermann E, Pedersen JO, Saraubon K, Tjell JC, Prapamontol T: DDT in human milk from Chiang Mai mothers: a public health perspective on infants' exposure. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005; 74: 407-414.
Bouwman H, Sereda B, Meinhardt HM: Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa. Environ Pollut, 2006; 144: 902-917.
Hui LL, Hedley AJ, Kypke K, Cowling BJ, Nelson EA, Wong TW, van Leeuwen FX, Malisch R: DDT levels in human milk in Hong Kong, 2001-02. Chemosphere, 2008; 73: 50-55.
Okonkwo JO, Mutshatshi TN, Botha B, Agyei N: DDT, DDE and DDD in human milk from South Africa. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2008; 81: 348-354.
Ennaceur S, Ridha D, Marcos R: Genotoxicity of the organochlorine pesticides 1, 1-dichloro -2, 2-bis (p-chloro phenyl) ethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in cultured human lymphocytes. Chemosphere, 2008; 71: 1335-1339.
Cable G G, Doherty S: Acute carbamate and organochlorine toxicity causing convulsions in an agricultural pilot. Avait Space Environ Med, 1999; 70: 68-72.
Di MA, Camoni I, Dommarco R, Santilio A, Ausili A, Rizzica M, Gigli B, Calzolari C: Evaluation of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) levels in samples of human milk from Rome, Florence and the surrounding areas. Ann Ist Super Sanita, 1990; 26: 155-160.
Galetin-Smith R, Pavkov S, Roncevic N: DDT and PCBs in human milk: implication for breast feeding infants. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1990; 45: 811-818.
Mohammed A, Eklund A, Ostlund-Lindqvist AM, Slanina P: Distribution of toxaphene, DDT, and PCB among lipoprotein fractions in rat and human plasma. Arch Toxicol, 1990; 64: 567-571.
Horn M, Heinzow B, Dolk G: Burden of DDT, HCH, HCB and PCB in human milk in the former German Democratic Republic. Research and toxicologic evaluation. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed, 1994; 196: 95-103.
Chikuni O, Nhachi CF, Nyazema NZ, Polder A, Nafstad I, Skaare JU: Assessment of environmental pollution by PCBs, DDT and its metabolites using human milk of mothers in Zimbabwe. Sci Total Environ, 1997; 199: 183-190.
Longnecker MP, Rogan WJ, Lucier G: The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health. Annu Rev Public Health, 1997; 18: 211-244.
Byard JL, Paulsen SC, Tjeerdema RS, Chiavelli D: DDT, chlordane, toxaphene and PCB residues in Newport Bay and Watershed: assessment of hazard to wildlife and human health. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol, 2015; 235: 49-168.
Enan E, Matsumura F: Activation of c-Neu tyrosine kinase by o,p'-DDT and beta-HCH in cell-free and intact cell preparations from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 1998; 12: 83-92.
Wang XQ, Gao PY, Lin YZ, Chen CM: Studies on hexachlorocyclohexane and DDT contents in human cerumen and their relationships to cancer mortality. Biomed Environ Sci, 1988; 1: 138-151.
Diel P, Olff S, Schmidt S, Michna H: Effects of the environmental estrogens bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, p-tert-octylphenol and coumestrol on apoptosis induction, cell proliferation and the expression of estrogen sensitive molecular parameters in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2002; 80: 61-70.
Han EH, Kim HG, Hwang YP, Choi JH, Im JH, Park B, Yang JH, Jeong TC, Jeong HG: The role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent signaling via cyclic AMP response element activation on aromatase up-regulation by o,p'-DDT in human breast cancer cells. Toxicol Lett, 2010; 198: 331-341.
Ndebele K, Graham B, Tchounwou PB: Estrogenic activity of coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in human cervical cancer cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2010; 7: 2045-2056.
Lessa JM, Becak W, Nazareth RM, Pereira CA, Ungaro MT: Cytogenetic study of DDT on human lymphocytes in vitro. Mutat Res, 1976; 40: 131-138.
Geric M, Ceraj-Ceric N, Gajski G, Vasilic Z, Capuder Z, Garaj-Vrhovac V: Cytogenetic status of human lymphocytes after exposure to low concentrations of p,p'-DDT, and its metabolites (p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) in vitro. Chemosphere, 2012; 87: 1288-1294.