Toxic Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides: A Review
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2016, Pages: 11-18
Received: Oct. 25, 2015; Accepted: Nov. 23, 2015; Published: Mar. 14, 2016
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Authors
Zorawar Singh, Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Jasminder Kaur, Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Ravneet Kaur, Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Swarndeep Singh Hundal, Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
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Abstract
This study is aimed at compiling the toxicological aspects of organochlorine compounds (OCCs) including pesticides among different animal models. Tests on animal species like Mean Probable Effect Concentration Quotient (PEC-Q) test, DNA repair assays and histopathological examinations have shown positive results for the toxicity of organochlorine pesticides. The results were observed on different animals including fishes, furseals, frogs, rats, bats and humans. In fishes, endosulfan is found to have acute toxicities. Similarly, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids and microbial insecticides were also found to show their toxic effects. Some compounds such as lambda-cyhalothrin showed a very high toxicity on fish followed by fenvalerate, deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Exposure to OCCs can impart foe cell death by inducing Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway (MAPK) which is associated with cell growth differentiation and apoptosis. On studying the genotoxic effects of OCCs on germ cells of mouse, it was observed that a lethal mutation can occur just after one mating interval. Increase in the number of micronucleated cells has also been seen after OCC exposure. Neuro-behavioural studies on rats showed the presence of tremors caused by chlordecone and p,p’DDT. Tumorigenicity by organochlorine pesticides is seen to be an epigenetic mechanism in a DNA repair assay. Acute poisoning was seen in liver, kidney and testis of albino rat due to the toxic effect of dursban and DDT. Great declines in populations have been seen due to OCC toxicity in different animal species. Direct and indirect exposure to these compounds should be reduced so as to minimize the possible health hazards.
Keywords
Organochlorine Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Toxicity, Endosulfan, Lindane, Dieldrin
To cite this article
Zorawar Singh, Jasminder Kaur, Ravneet Kaur, Swarndeep Singh Hundal, Toxic Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides: A Review, American Journal of BioScience. Special Issue: Recent Trends in Experimental Toxicology. Vol. 4, No. 3-1, 2016, pp. 11-18. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.s.2016040301.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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