Growth Performance, Metabolic Efficiency and Nutrient Utilization of BALB/C Mice Fed with Diet Made from Leftovers from Cocos nucifera Pulp
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages: 1-6
Received: Jan. 25, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 5, 2018;
Published: Feb. 27, 2019
Views 743 Downloads 114
Omondi Gilbert Ouma, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya
Malala Joel Bonface, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya; Directorate of Research and Innovation, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya
Msanzu Joseph Baya, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya
Anjili Christopher Omukhango, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Gicharu Gibson Kamau, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya
Huxley Makonde Mae, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya
Chimbevo Lenny Mwagandi, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kirinyaga University, Kerugoya, Kenya
Follow on us
Shortage of animal feeds as a result of increased demand and competition for scarcely available animal feeds has led to drastic decrease in animal production globally. In Kenya, utilization of various plant parts including leaves, fruits and bark of various plantations is taking center stage. Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) a member of the pulp family Arecaceae has potential to feed animals from its leftovers after utilization for human food. The study sought to analyze proximate nutritional value composition of Coconut pulp leftovers and its formulated diet as well as in vivo growth performance of BALB/c mice. Formulated coconut pulp leftovers were dried before both phytochemical analysis and in vivo growth performance was determined. The Proximate analysis indicated Coconut pulp leftovers contained; 3.50±0.22% crude protein, 34.15±2.48% dry matter, 65.85±3.97% moisture content, 10.50±1.2422% total sugars and 25.00±0.35% total fats. Analysis of formulated coconut pulp diet indicated elevated crude protein 14.23±0.52%, dry matter 35.97±0.52% and total sugars 20.47±4.26% while moisture content 64.10±0.50% and total fats 22.10±0.50% declined. In vivo results for the Coconut pulp leftovers application on mice model to ascertain growth performance were as follows; weight gain 0.80±0.50%, SGR 0.33±0.29%, FCR 241.67±556.67% and conditional factor 0.47±0.12%. For formulated diet it was weight gain 3.90±3.22%, SGR 1.0483±0.91%, FCR 28.23±28.92% and conditional factor 0.58±0.04%. The result indicates Coconut pulp leftovers have potential for animal feeds diet formulation.
Animal Feeds, Coconut Pulp Leftovers, Formulated Diet, Conditional Factor and Arecaceae
To cite this article
Omondi Gilbert Ouma,
Malala Joel Bonface,
Msanzu Joseph Baya,
Anjili Christopher Omukhango,
Gicharu Gibson Kamau,
Huxley Makonde Mae,
Chimbevo Lenny Mwagandi,
Growth Performance, Metabolic Efficiency and Nutrient Utilization of BALB/C Mice Fed with Diet Made from Leftovers from Cocos nucifera Pulp, American Journal of BioScience.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-6.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC. 2000.
FAO. Poultry feeding in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Food Agricultural Organization (FAO). Agriculture Development paper 82. F AO, Rome. 22pp. 1967.
Fife BF. Coconut cure: preventing and treating common health problems with coconut. Piccadily Books. Colorado Springs, CO, USA. 2005.
Gohl B. Tropical feeds. Animal Production and Health Division. 1975. Food Agricultural Organization (FAO) Rome. Paper 98.
Kadere T. T; R. K. Oniango, P. M. Kutima and S. M. Njoroge 2009; Production, Marketing, and economic importance of Mnazi and other coconut based products in Kenya; Research journ. Agric. 7 Bio. Sciences; 5(5) 815-822.
McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalg JFD. Animal nutrition. 3rd ed. Longman, London and Newyork. 1981.
Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Baird DA, Soutar DM. an introduction to GenStat for windows, 14th ed. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK. 2011.
FAO. Poultry feeding in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Food Agricultural Organization (FAO). Agriculture Development paper 82. F AO, Rome. 25pp. 1995.
P. McDonald, R. A. Edwards, and J. F. D. Greenhalgh. 1st ed. Longman Group Limited, London (1977). ISBN 10: 0582441579 ISBN 13: 9780582441576
Mwachiro, E. C and Gakure, R. W. 2011. Factors Affecting the Coconut Industry from Benefitting the Indigenous Communities of Kilifi District, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science; 1(4), 209-218.
Jagadi, M. M, Rundgren, M. and Ogle, R. B. (2016). Chemical characterisation and nutrient evaluation of some Tanzanian plant protein feedstuffs Department of Animal Nutrition and Management. Journal of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; 23(19), 143-167.
Jayathilakan, K. Khudsia S, Radhakrishna, K and Bawa, A. S. (2012). Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review. International Journal of Food Science Technology; 49(3): 278–293.
Food and Drug Association (FDA). 1955. Ingredients and additives. Available online.
Kedar Nath Mohanta, Sankaran Subramanian and Veeratayya Sidweerayya Korikanthimath (2013). Evaluation of Different Animal Protein Sources in Formulating the Diets for Blue Gourami, Trichogaster Trichopterus Fingerlings; 10.4172/2155-9546.1000164
Johnny O. Ogunji and Manfred Wirth (2018). Alternative protein sources as substitutes for fishmeal in the diet of young tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus. Institute of freshwater ecology and Inland fisheries; 43(13), 1312-1320.
Mukhopadhyay Y. and Ray R. (2009). Effect of fermentation on the nutritive value of sesame seed meal in the diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings. International Journal of Aquaculture Nutrition; 5(4):229-236.
Swick, R. A. (1999). Considerations in using protein meals for poultry and swine. American Soybean Association, Technical Bulletin. 19pp.
Liu ML, Mars WM, Zarnegar R, Michalopoulos GK (1994) Collagenase pretreatment and the mitogenic effects of hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha in adult rat liver. Hepatology 19: 1521–1527.