Please enter verification code
Spontaneous Development of Forests of the Central Russian Upland is Desirable
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 89-103
Received: Sep. 25, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 6, 2017; Published: Nov. 6, 2017
Views 2928      Downloads 152
Yuri Fiodorovitch Arefjev, Department of Ecology, Forest Protection and Hanting Studies, Faculty Forestry, Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies, Voronezh, Russia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Forests life depends in many respects from specific of mankind activity. Adverse aspect is destruction and degradation of the natural old-growth woods. The woods have been ruthlessly affected by humans. The man-made forests usually have the low level of heterogeneity and are object of mass attacks of harmful organisms. The purpose of this work is to prove formation of the forest ecosystems capable to spontaneous development, to biotic self-control. Spontaneous development is a basis of free choice of the Nature and a rather high level of heterogeneity of created plantings. It is desirable. Long-term researches were carried out in the conditions of the Central Russian Upland. Results of experimental forest works of 1936 are considered. The methodology of researches was based on the comparison of a condition of viability of forest stands and natural renewal in plantings, various on heterogeneity level. Level of heterogeneity of mosaic forest ecosystems at which spontaneous development conducting to biotic self-control of species communities and maintenance of biotic systems is reached, was as a result of researches established. Equability of man-made forests is thus to almost necessary level reached.
Forests, Degradation, Heterogeneity, Upland, Self-Control
To cite this article
Yuri Fiodorovitch Arefjev, Spontaneous Development of Forests of the Central Russian Upland is Desirable, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 89-103. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20170506.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Arefjew, Ju. F.: Genetisch-ökologische Aspekte des Forstschutzes. Der Wald, 7'95, Berlin (1995), S. 238 – 239.
Björkman, E.: Resistance to snow blight (Phacidium infestans Karst.) in different provenances of Pinus sylvestris. Stud., 5, (1963). P. 2 – 3.
Björkman, E.: Breeding for resistance to disease in forest trees. Unasylva, vol. 18 (1964). P. 1 – 16.
Flor, H. H.: Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Ann. Rev. Phytopath., 9, (1971). P. 275 – 296.
Mendel G.: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden, Verh. naturforsch. Vert. Brünn, 4, (1866). S. 3 – 47.
Hardy, G. H.: Mendelian proportions in a mixed population. Science, 28, (1908). P. 49 – 50.
Weinberg, W.: Weitere Beiträge zur Theorie der Vererbung, Arch. Rassenges. Biol. 7. (1910). S. 35-49, 169-73.
Li, C. C.: The correlation between parents and offspring in random mating population. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1954). P. 383 – 386.
Li, C. C.: First course in population genetics. California, The Boxwood pressw, (1976). 555 p.
Löchelt, S.: Bestimmung der genetischen Konstitution von Waldbäumen mit unterschiedlich ausgeprägten Scadsimptomen auf baden-würtembergischen Dauerbeobachtungsflächen. Project Europäisches Forschungszentrum für Maßnahmen der Luftreinhaltung. Forschungsbericht KfK-PEF 108, (1993). 115 S.
Kurth, H.: Forsteinrichtung. Berlin: Deutscher Landschafsverl., (1994). 592 S.
Gayer, K.: Der gemischte Wald, seine Begründung und Pflege, insbesondere durch Horst – und Gruppenwirtschaft. Berlin: Parey, (1726). – 168 p.
Pommerening, A.: Neue Methoden zur Analyse und Characterisierung von Bestandesstructuren. Forstw. Cbl. 119. (2000). S. 62 – 78.
Pretzsch, H.: Analyse und Reproduction räumlicher Bestandesstructuren. Methodische Überlegungen am Beispiel niedersächsischer Buchen-Lärchen-Mischbestände. Centralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen 112. (1995). S. 91 – 117.
Pretzsch, H.: Structural diversity as a result of silvicultural operations. Forestry 10. (1998). S. 429 – 439.
Scamoni, A.: Waldgesellschaften und Waldstandorte. Berlin-Academie-Verlag. (1954). 186 S.
Holzer, K.: First results of of a small provenance trial with Pinus strobus and P. strobiliformis near Vienna. Proc. 18-th IUFRO World Congress. Div. 2. Ljubljana. (1986), N 1. P. 23 – 30.
Rohmeder, E. & H. Schönbach: Genetik und Züchtung der Waldbäume. Hamburg und Berlin, (1959). – 338 S.
Fowelles, H. A.: Service of forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook, № 271. –Washington, (1965). – 762 p.
Muhs, H.-J. et al.: The conservation of genetic resources in the Federal Republic of Germany. Muhs, A. Behm, H. Dörflinger // Forest, genetics, breeding and physiology of woody plants. Moscow. (1990). P. 79 – 104.
Furukoshi, T. A. & S. Kurinobu: A provenance trial of Pinus strobus in Central Japan. Forest Plants and Forest Protection. Ljubljan, (1986). P. 1 -12.
Arefjew, Ju. F.: Free Choice of the Nature in the Changing World. Universal Journal of Geoscience, 5, 117 – 137. doi: 10.13189/uig.2017.050501.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186