Effects of Aqueous Stem Extract of Achyranthes aspera on Bitis arietans Venom Protease and Phospholipase A2 Activity
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 54-58
Received: Feb. 16, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 27, 2017; Published: May 27, 2017
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Hope Chinyere Nwune, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mohammed Adamu Milala, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Hassan Zanna, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
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Aqueous stem extract of Achyranthes aspera was investigated for inhibitory activity against Bitis arietans venom protease and phospholipase A2 activity. The elemental analysis and phytochemical screening of the plant extract were carried out. The activities of protease and phospholipase A2 (Vo) of the crude Bitis arietans venom was determined and the data obtained was used to estimate KM, Vmax and Kcat. Inhibition studies were carried out using the same procedure except that different concentrations of the extracts (5%, 10%, 15% for protease assay and 0.5%, 0.75%, 10%, 1.25% and 1.5% for phospholipase A2 assay) were added to the reaction mixture. The result showed that the Bitis arietans venom protease had a Vmax of 0.062 ± 0.013 µmol/min, KM of 0.496 ± 0.095mg/ml and a Kcat of 0.125 ± 0.001min-1. The result also indicates that the Bitis arietans phospholipase A2 had a Vmax of 3.27 ± 0.030min-1, KM of 8.358 ± 0.050 mg/ml and Kcat of 0.391 ± 0.002min-. The aqueous stem extract produced a statistically significant (P<0.05) decrease in the Vmax, KM and Kcat of the Bitis arietans venom phospholipase A2 in a dose dependent manner and a statistically significant (P<0.05) increase in the Vmax, KM and Kcat of Bitis arietans protease in a dose dependent manner. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, saponins and terpenoids in the extract while the elemental analysis revealed the presence of Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, Mn, Fe and Na. The result suggests that aqueous stem extract of Achyranthes aspera inhibited the Bitis arietans venom phospholipase A2 in an uncompetitive manner while the protease activity was stimulated by the extracts. It was observed that the use of the stem of Achyranthes aspera may be important in the treatment of snake bites.
Achyranthes aspera, Bitis arietans, Antivenom, Protease, Phospholipase A2
To cite this article
Hope Chinyere Nwune, Mohammed Adamu Milala, Hassan Zanna, Effects of Aqueous Stem Extract of Achyranthes aspera on Bitis arietans Venom Protease and Phospholipase A2 Activity, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 54-58. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20170503.13
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