Potentiality of Inducer Resistance Chemicals and Bioagents in Managing Lettuce Downy Mildew
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 4-12
Received: Feb. 22, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 15, 2017; Published: Mar. 21, 2017
Views 1494      Downloads 55
Khairy Abdel-Maksoud Abada, Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Amany Mohamed Farouk Attia, Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
The tested inducer resistance chemicals (IRCs) bion (BTH), chitosan and salicylic acid as well as the bacterial bioagents Bacillus pumilus B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the fungal bioagents Trichoderma album, T. harzianum and T. viride resulted in significant reduction to the germinated sporangia (conidia) of the fungus like Bremia lactucae Regel, the causal of lettuce downy mildew. This reduction was gradually increased by increasing the used concentration. The role of the tested IRCs and bioagents on management of the disease under greenhouse was evaluated. Under greenhouse conditions, spraying of lettuce plants artificially inoculted with the causal fungus like resulted in significant reduction to the severity of the disease compared with control treatment. Moreover, the IRC bion as well as P. fluorescens and T. harzianum were the most efficient treatments in this regard. Two field experiments were carried out during 2016/ 2017 growing season under natural infection by the disease to evaluate the efficacy of spraying of lettuce plants with any of the IRC bion and the bioagents P. fluorescens and T. harzianum on plants previously soaked or not in bion just before transplanting on the severity of the disease and weight of the grown plants. Data revealed that there was significant reduction to the severity of the disease with considerable increase to the average weight of each plant compared with control treatment due to sprying of these treatments. However, the fungicide Ridomil Gold MZ was the superior treatment in reducing the disease and increasing the weight of the foliage growth of lettuce plants. In addition, spraying of the IRC bion on plants soaked in bion just before transplanting ranked the second in this regarad followed by spraying of any of the two bioagents. Considerable increase in the activity of the oxidative reductive enzymes, i.e phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), due to spraying of lettuce plants with bion, the bioagents P. fluorescens and T. harzianum as well as the fungicide Ridomil Gold MZ compared with unsprayed plants (control).
Lettuce, Bioagents, Downy Mildew, Inducer Resistance Chemicals, Oxidative Reductive Enzymes, Ridomil Gold MZ
To cite this article
Khairy Abdel-Maksoud Abada, Amany Mohamed Farouk Attia, Potentiality of Inducer Resistance Chemicals and Bioagents in Managing Lettuce Downy Mildew, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 4-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20170501.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abada, K. A and Abdel-Malek, Gehan, A. M.(2011).The role of some systemic fungicides and resistance inducing chemicals on controlling pea downy mildew. Zagazig J. Agric. Res., 38 (2): 319-337.
Abada, K. A. and Eid, Kh. E. (2014). A Protocol suggested for manage-ment of cantaloupe downy mildew. Am. J. of Life Sci., 2 (6-2): 1-10.
Attia, M. F.: Abada K. A. and Mohamed, I. A. (1990).Studies on Bremia lactucae Regel in A. R. Egypt. 6th Cong. of Phytopathol, 5-7 March, Cairo, Egypt., 403–420.
Barilli, E.; Diego, R.; Carmine, A.; Antonio, E. and Prats, Elena. (2015). BTH and BABA induce resistance in pea against rust (Uromyces pisi) involving differential phytoalexin accumulation. Planta 242 (5): 1095-1106. doi: 10.1007/s 00425- 015-2339-8.
Bhattacharjee, R. and Dey, U. (2014). An overview of fungal and bacterial biopesticides to control plant pathogens / diseases. Afr. J. of Microbiol. Res., 8 (17): 1749-1762.
Bissett, J. (1991). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. W: Infragenic classification. Can. J. Bot., 69: 2357-2317.
Brain, P. W. and Hemming, H. G. (1945). Gliotoxin a fungistatic metabolic product of Trichoderma viride. Ann. Appl. Biol., 32: 214–220.
Burrell, M. M. and Rees, T. A. (1974). Metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine in rice leaves infected by Pyricularia oryzae. Physiol. Plant Pathol, 4: 497–508.
Crute, I. R. and Davis, A. A. (1977). Specificity of Bremia luctucae from Luctucus. Trans. Br. mycol. Sot., 69: 405-410.
Crute, I. R. and Gordon, P. L. (1980). Downy mildew of lettuce; Integrated control. Rep. Nat. Veg. Res. Stn. for 1979: 75.
Davis, E. M. (1997). Compendium of lettuce diseases.The American Phytopathological Society, 79 pp.
De Vries, I. M. (1997): Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 44: 165–174.
El- Khallal, Samia M. (2007). Induction and modulation of resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease by bioagent fungi (arbuscular mycorrhiza) and/or hormonal elicitors (jasmonic acid & salicylic acid): 2-Changes in the antioxidant enzymes, phenolic compounds and pathogen related- proteins. Aust. J. of Basic and Appl. Scis., 1 (4): 717-732.
Fisher, R. A. (1948). Statistical Methods 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Ellis, R. J.; Timms-Wilson, T. M.; Beringer, J. E.; Rhodes, D.; Renwick, A.; Stevenson, L. and Bailey, M. J. (1999). Ecological basis for biocontrol of damping-off disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens 54/96. J Appl. Microbiol, 87: 454–463.
Gerasimova, N. G.; Pridvorova, S. M. and Ozeretskovskaya O. L. (2005). Role of L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the induced resistance and susceptibility of potato plants. Appl. Biochemis. and Microbiol., 41: 103-105.
Holt, J. G. and Krieg, N. R. (1984). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
Johnson, A. G.; Laxton, S. A.; Crute, I. R.; Gordon, P. L.and Norwood, J. M. (1978). Furtherwork on the genetics of race specific resistance in lettuce (Lactuca sutiva) to downy mildew (Bremia luctucae). Ann. Appl. Biol., 89: 257-264.
Junid, J. M.; Dar, N. A.; Baht, T. A.; Baht, A. H. and Baht, M. A. (2013). Commercial biocontrol agents and their mechanism of action in the management of plant pathogens. Inter. J. of Modern Plant and Animal Scis., 1 (2): 39-57.
Iriti, M. and Faoro, F (2003). Benzothiadiazole (BTH): induces cell-death independent resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces appendiculatus. J. of Phytopathol., 151 (3): 171-180.
Kessmann, H.: Sataub, T.; Hofmann, C.; Meatzke, T. and Herzog, J. (1994). Induction of systemic acquired disease resistance in plants by chemicals. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 32: 439-459.
Kunjeti, S. G.; Anchieta, A.; Martin, F. N.; Choi, Y. J.; Thines, M.; Michelmore, R. W.; Koike, S. T.; Tsuchida, C.; Mahaffee, W.; Subbarao, K. V. and Klosterman, S. J. (2016). Detection and quantification of Bremia lactucae by spore trapping and quantitative PCR. Phytopathology, 106 (11): 1426-1437.
Lebeda. A.; Pink, D. A. C. and Astley, D. (2002). Aspects of the interactions between wild Lactuca spp. and related genera and lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae). In: Spencer-Phillips P. T. N., Gisi U., Lebeda A. (eds): Advances in Downy Mildew Research. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 85–117.
Lebeda, A.; Ryder, E. J.; Grube, R.; Dolezalova, I. and Kristkova, E. (2007). Lettuce (Asteraceae; Lactuca spp.). In: Singh R. J. (eds): Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. Vol. 3. Vegetable Crops. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton: 377–472.
Lebeda, A.; Petrzelova, I. and Maryska, Z. (2008). Structure and variation in the wild-plant pathosystem: Lactuca serriola-Bremia lactucae. Eur. J. of Plant Pathol., 122: 127–146.
Mayer, A. M.; Harel E. and Shaul R. B. (1965). Assay of catechol oxidase a critical comparison of methods. Phytochemistry, 5: 783–789.
Melo, G. A.; Shimizu, M. M. and Mazzafera, P. (2006). Polyphenol oxidase activity in coffee leaves and its role in resistance against the coffee leaf miner and coffee leaf rust.Phytochemistry, 67: 277-285.
Meena, B.; Marimuthu, T. and Velazhahan, R. (2006). Role of fluoroscent pseudomonas in plant growth promotion and biological control of late leaf spot of groundnut. Acta Phythopatho-logica et Entomologica Hungarica, 41 (3-4): 203-212.
Mieslerova, B.; Lebeda, A.; Petrelova, I. and Korbelova, P.(2013). Incidence of lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) and powdery mildew (Golovinomyces cichoracearum) in natural populations of Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). Plant Protec. Sci., 49: S24–S32.
Morkunas, I. and Gemerek, J. (2007). The possible involvement of peroxidase in defense of yellow lupine embryo axes against Fusarium oxysporum. J. Plant Physiol., 164: 497-506.
Nordskog, B.; Gadoury, D. M.; Seem, R. C. and Hermansen A. (2007). Impact of diurnal periodicity, temperature and light on sporulation of Bremia lactucae. Phytopathology, 97: 979–986.
Oedjijono, M. A. L. and Dragar, C. (1993). Isolation of bacteria antagonistic to a range of plant pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol. Biochemis., 25: 247–250.
Pajot, E,; Le Corre, D. and Silue, D. (2001).Phytogard and DL-β-amino butyric acid (BABA) induce resistance to downy mildew (Bremia Lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). Eur. J. of Plant Pathol., 107 (9): 861–869.
Parry, J. M.; Turnbull, P. C. B. and Gibson, J. R. (1983). A colour atlas of Bacillus species, Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd. 390-396.
Ramamoorthy, V.; Viswanathan, R.; Raguchander, T.; Pkakasam, V. and Samivappan, R. (2001). Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in crop plants against pests and diseases. Crop Protec., 20 (1): 1-11.
Reuveni, R.; Shimoni, M. and Crute, I. R. (1991). An association between high peroxidase activity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and field resistance to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae). J. Phytopathol., 132: 312—318.
Rifai, M. A. (1969). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycological Papers, 116: 1-56.
Sarnigute, A. J.; Kraus, Lenkels, M. D.; Muchlchen, A. M. and Loper, J. E. (1995). The sigma factor affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-5. Proc. Watl. Acad. Sci., USA, 92: 12255-12259.
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1967). Statistical Methods. 6th Ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Su, H.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.; Subbarao, K. V. and Scherm, H. (2004).Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions. Phytopathology, 94: 396–401.
Thipyapong, P. and Steffens, J. C. (1992).Tomato polyphenol oxidase. Plant Physiol., 100: 1885–1890.
Vanitha, S. C.; Niranjana, S. R. and Umesha, S. (2009). Role of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase in host resistance to bacterial wilt of tomato. J. Phytopathol., 157: 552–557.
Vetter, S. D. (1958). Quantitative determination of peroxidaese in sweet corn. Agric. and Food Chemis. 6 (1): 39-41.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186