Please enter verification code
Confirm
Residual Effects of Some Preceded Winter Field Crops on Productivity of Intercropped Soybean with Three Maize Cultivars
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 226-242
Received: Sep. 18, 2015; Accepted: Oct. 7, 2015; Published: Oct. 28, 2015
Views 4980      Downloads 167
Authors
Mohamed Mourad Lamlom, Crop Intensification Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Sherif IbrahimAbdel-Wahab, Crop Intensification Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Tamer IbrahimAbdel-Wahab, Crop Intensification Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Emad Kamal Gendy, Food Legume Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
A two – year study was carried out at Sids Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, ARC, Beni – Sweif governorate, Egypt, during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 to study the residual effects of the preceded berseem, sugar beet and wheat crops on yield and its attributes of intercropped soybean with three maize cultivars. The treatments consisted of three local maize cultivars (S.C.122, T.W.C.310 and Giza2) that grown with one local soybean cultivar Giza22 in alternating ridges 2:2 and three preceded winter crops (berseem, sugar beet and wheat). A split plot design with three replications was used. The results showed that the preceded berseem (the Egyptian clover) crop residues which had positive allelopathic effects on soil properties contributed mainly in productivity of intercropped soybean with maize. On the other hand, Giza 2 cultivar had a lower negative effect on intercropped soybean productivity than S.C. 122 or T.W.C. 310 cultivar. The interaction between the preceded winter crops and maize cultivars was significant for all the studied soybean traits except branches dry weight, numbers of branches and seeds/plant. Intercropping soybean with T.W.C. 310 cultivar that followed berseem produced 1.78 ton/ha of soybean seeds in addition to 5.60 ton/ha of maize grains. Yield advantage was achieved because of land equivalent ratio was exceeded 1.00. Dominance analysis proved that soybean is dominated component. The highest monetary advantage index was obtained by intercropping soybean with maize cultivar T.W.C. 310 that followed berseem.
Keywords
Allelopathy, Preceded Winter Crops, Intercropping, Maize Cultivars, Soybean, Competitive Relationship
To cite this article
Mohamed Mourad Lamlom, Sherif IbrahimAbdel-Wahab, Tamer IbrahimAbdel-Wahab, Emad Kamal Gendy, Residual Effects of Some Preceded Winter Field Crops on Productivity of Intercropped Soybean with Three Maize Cultivars, American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 226-242. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20150306.15
References
[1]
Abdel-Galil AM, Abdel-Wahab TI and Abdel-Wahab ShI. 2014a. Productivity of four soybean varieties as affected by intercropping with corn planting geometry. Soybean Res., 12 (1): 36 – 58.
[2]
Abdel-Galil AM, Abdel-Wahab ShI and Abdel-Wahab TI. 2014b. Compatibility of some maize and soybean varieties for intercropping under sandy soil conditions. Proc. 1st Conf. of International Soybean Res., Indore, 22 – 24 February, India.
[3]
Ahmed S and Rao MR. 1982. Performance of maize – soybean intercrop combination in the tropics: Results of a multi – location study. Field Crops Res., 5: 147 – 161.
[4]
Aita C and Giacomini SJ. 2003. Decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura de solo solteiras e consorciadas. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 27: 601-612.
[5]
Alam F, Bhuiyan MAH, Alam SS, Waghmode TR, Kima PJ and Lee YB .2015. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 79 (10): 1660 – 1668.
[6]
Alikhani HA, Saleh RN and Antoun H. 2006. Phosphate solubilization activity of rhizobia native to Iranian soils. Plant Soil, 287: 35 – 41.
[7]
Amakiri MA. 2000. Microbes moving the world forward in the new millennium. Inaugural Lecture delivered on 29 Nov. 2000 at the Rivers State Univ. Sci. and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwu, Port Harcourt 2000, pp. 50 – 51.
[8]
Aynehband A, Behrooz M and Afshar AH. 2010. Study of intercropping agroecosystem productivity influenced by different crops and planting ratios. American-Eurasian J. Agric. and Environ. Sci., 7(2): 163 – 169.
[9]
Azizi M and Sorouri D. 2014. Effect of potassium, zinc and manganese on agronomic traits of soybean. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agron., LVII: 18 – 21.
[10]
Barbagelata P, Melchiori R and Paparotti O. 2002. Phosphorus fertilization of soybeans in clay soils of Entre Rios Province. Better Crops International J., 16 (1): 3 – 5.
[11]
Barney PE and Bush LP. 1985. Interaction of nitrate and sulphate reduction in tobacco.I. Influence of availability of nitrate and sulphate. J Plant Nutr., 8: 507 – 515.
[12]
Blanco-Canqui H and Lal R. 2009. Crop residue removal impacts on soil productivity and environmental quality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sci., 28: 139 – 163.
[13]
Brady, NC. 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soils (Tenth Edn.). Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 315 p.
[14]
Bulletin of Statistical Cost Production and Net Return. 2013. Summer and Nili Field Crops and Vegetables and Fruit, Agriculture Statistics and Economic Sector, Ministry of Egyptian Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Part (2), August 2013, Egypt.
[15]
Cassman KG, Whitney AS and Stockinger KR. 1980. Root growth and dry matter distribution of soybean as affected by phosphorus stress, nodulation, and nitrogen source. Crop Sci., 20: 239 – 244.
[16]
Cattelan AJ, Hartel PG and Fuhrmann JJ. 1998. Bacterial composition in the rhizosphere of nodulating and non-nodulating soybean. Soil Sci. Society of America J., 62 (6): 1549 – 1555.
[17]
Chalk PM. 1998. Dynamics of biologically fixed N in legume-cereal rotations: a review. Australian J. Agric. Res., 49: 303–316.
[18]
Chapman HD and Pratt PE. 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Water. Division Agric. Sci., California Univ., U.S.A.
[19]
Chude VO, Malgwi WB, Amapu IV and Ano OA. 2004. Manual on Soil Fertility Assessment. Federal Fertilizer Department (FFD) In collaboration with FAO/National Special Programme for Food Security, Abuja, Nigeria.
[20]
Dabuxilatu I and Ikeda M. 2005. Distribution of K, Na, Cl, root and leaf cells of soybean and cucumber plants grown under salinity conditions. Soil Sci. Plant Nutrition, 57: 1053 – 1057.
[21]
Dolijanovic Ž, Oljaca S, Kovacevic D, Simic M, Momirovic N and Jovanovic Z. 2013. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern. Genetika, 45(1): 135 – 144.
[22]
Duke SO, Dayan FE, Romagni JG and Rimando AM. 2000. Natural products as sources of herbicides: current status and future trends. Weed Res., 40: 99 – 111.
[23]
Duraisami VP and Mani AK. 2001. Residual effect of inorganic nitrogen, composted coirpith and biofertilizer on yield and uptake of soybean in an Inceptisol. Madras Agric. J., 88 (4/6): 277 – 280.
[24]
Einhellig FA and Rasmussen JA. 1979. Effects of three phenolic acids on chlorophyll content and growth of soybean and grain sorghum seedlings. J. Chemical Ecology, 5 (5): 815 – 824.
[25]
El-Habbak KED. 1985. Studies on Competition and Intercropping in Maize and Soybean. Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Moshtohor, Zagazig Univ.
[26]
El-Shamy Moshira A, Abdel-Wahab TI, Abdel-Wahab ShI and Ragheb SB. 2014. Efficiency of intercropping soybean with corn under two corn plant distributions and three mineral nitrogen fertilizer rates. The 8th International Conf. on Technology and Sustainable Development in the Third Millennium, 22 – 24 November 2014, El-Montaza Sheraton, Alexandria, Egypt.
[27]
El-Shamy Moshira A, Abdel-Wahab TI, Abdel-Wahab ShI and Ragheb SB. 2015. Advantages of intercropping soybean with maize under two maize plant distributions and three mineral nitrogen fertilizer rates Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering, 3 (4): 30 – 48.
[28]
Farhad ISM, Islam MN, Hoque S and Bhuiy MSI. 2010. Role of potassium and sulphur on the growth, yield and oil content of soybean (Glycine max L.). An Academic J. Plant Sci., 3 (2): 99 – 103.
[29]
Fatima Z, Zia M and Chaudhary MF. 2007. Interactive effect of Rhizobium strains and P on soybean yield, nitrogen fixation and soil fertility. Pak. J. Bot., 39 (1): 255 – 264.
[30]
Fragasso M, Iannucci A and Papa R. 2013. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management. Front Plant Sci., 4: 375 p.
[31]
Francis CA, Rutger JN and Palmer AFE. 1969. A rapid method for plant leaf area estimation in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Sci., 9: 537 – 539.
[32]
Freed RD. 1991. MSTATC Microcomputer Statistical Program. Michigan State Univ. East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
[33]
Frommel MI, Nowak J and Lazarovits G. 1991. Growth enhancement and development modifications of in vitro grown potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) as affected by a nonfluorescent Pseudomonas sp. Plant Physiol., 96: 928 – 936.
[34]
Ghannoum O, Evans JR and Caemmerer SV. 2011. Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiency of C4 Plants In: Raghavendra, A.S. & Sage, R.F. (eds.), C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms, pp. 129 – 146.
[35]
Gomez KA and Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Eilley and Sons, Inc. New York.
[36]
Graf E. 1992. Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 13: 435 – 448.
[37]
Graham PH and Vance CP. 2003. Legumes importance and constraints to greater utilization to greater utilization. Plant Physiol., 131: 872 – 877.
[38]
Guillon F and Thibault JF. 1989. Methylation analysis and mild acid hydrolysis of the “hairy” fragments of sugar beet pectins. Carbohydr Res., 190: 85 – 96.
[39]
Gutiérrez-Mañero FJ, Ramos-Solano B, Probanza A, Mehouachi JR, Tadeo F and Talon M. 2001. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiologia Plantarum, 111 (2): 206 – 211.
[40]
Hanway JJ and Johnson JW. 1985. Potassium nutrition of soybean. In: "Potassium in Agriculture" (R.D. Munson, ed.). pp. 753-764. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, WI.
[41]
Hiebsch CK and McCollum RF. 1987. Area × time equivalency ratio: a method for calculating the productivity of intercrops. Agron. J., 79: 15–22.
[42]
Holden M. 1965. Chlorophyll in 'Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments'. (Ed. Goodwin, T.W.). Academic Press, London, 462 – 488.
[43]
Ibrahim MH, Jaafar Hawa ZE, Rahmat A and Abdul Rahman Z. 2011. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. Molecules, 16: 162 – 174. doi:10.3390/molecules16010162
[44]
Ishii T. 1997. Structure and functions of feruloylated polysaccharides. Plant Sci., 127: 111 – 127.
[45]
Jackson ML. 1965. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englwood Cliffis, New Jersy, 498 p.
[46]
Jiang H and Egli DB. 1993. Shade induced changes in flower and pod number and flower and fruit abscission in soybean. Agron. J., 85: 221 – 225.
[47]
Jones J. 1983. A guide for the Hydroponic and Soil-Less Culture Grower. Timber Press, Beaverton, Ore, USA.
[48]
Jones C and Jacobsen J. 2001. Nutrient Management Module 2: Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility. A self-study course from the Montana State University Extension Service Continuing Education Series. www. Land resources. montana. edu/nm/.../NM2.
[49]
Kakar KM, Tariq M, Taj FH and Nawab K. 2002. Phosphorous use efficiency of soybean as affected by phosphorous application and inoculation. Pak. J. Agron., 1 (1): 49 – 50.
[50]
Kelner DJ, Vessey JK and Entz MH. 1997. The nitrogen dynamics of 1-st, 2-and 3-year stands of alfalfa in a cropping system. Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment, 64: 1–10.
[51]
Khoshgoftarmanesh AH. 2008. Plant nutrition fundamentals. Esfahan Univ. Press. Iran.
[52]
Kobayashi DY and Palumbo JD. 2000. Bacterial endophytes and their effects on plants and uses in agriculture. In: Microbial endophytes. (Bacon CW, White JF, eds). Marcel Dek ker Inc., New York. pp. 199 – 233.
[53]
Laegreid M, Bockman OC and Kaarstad EO. 2000. Agriculture, fertilizer and environment. CAB International Publishing in Norsk Hydro, ASA, Posgrunn, Norwa.
[54]
Lakkineni KC and Abrol YP. 1994. Sulphur requirement of crop plants: Physiological Analysis. Fert. News, 39: 11 – 18.
[55]
Lam Y, Sze1 CW, Tong Y, Ng TB, Tang SCW, Ho JCM, Xiang Q, Lin X and Zhang Y. 2012. Research on the allelopathic potential of wheat. Agric. Sci., 3 (8): 979 – 985.
[56]
Malik MA, Cheema MA, Khan HZ and Wahid MA. 2006. Growth and yield response of soybean (Glycine max L.) to seed inoculation and varying phosphorus levels. J. Agric. Res., 44 (1): 47 – 54.
[57]
Marcelo AV, Corã JE, Fernandes Carolina, Martins MR and Jorge RF. 2009. Crop sequences in no-tillage system: Effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 33: 417 – 428.
[58]
Marschner H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Ed. Academic Press. London. 889 p.
[59]
Mathew JP, Herbert SJ, Zhang Sh, Rautenkranz AAF and Litchfield GV. 2000. Differential response of soybean yield components to the timing of light enrichment. Agron. J., 92: 1156 – 1161.
[60]
Matorin DN, Plekhanov SE, Bratkovskaya LB, Yakovleva, OV and Alekseev AA. 2014. The effect of phenols on the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and reactions of P700 in green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda. Biophysics, 59, Issue 3: 374 – 379.
[61]
Mead R and Willey RW. 1980. The concept of a "land equivalent ratio" and advantages in yields from intercropping. Exp Agric., 16: 217 – 28.
[62]
Moore A, Stark J, Brown B and Hopkins B. 2009. Sugar Beets. Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide, University of Idaho Extension.
[63]
Muyayabantu GM, Kadiata BD and Nkongolo KK. 2013. Assessing the effects of integrated soil fertility management on biological efficiency and economic advantages of intercropped maize (Zea Mays L.) and soybean (Glycine Max L.) in DR Congo. American J. Exp. Agric., 3(3): 520 – 541.
[64]
Odeleye FO, Togun AO and Tayo TO. 2001. The effect of light intensity on the growth, development and yield of soybean in Southwest Nigeria. African Crop Sci. J., 9 (3): 577 – 90.
[65]
Olofsdotter M, Jensen LB and Courtois B. 2002. Improving crop competitive ability using allelopathy – an example from rice. Plant Breed., 121: 1 – 9.
[66]
Parmar N and Dufresne J. 2011. Beneficial Interactions of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere Microorganisms. Springer, A. Singh et al. (eds.), Bioaugmentation, Biostimulation and Biocontrol, Soil Biology 28. DOI 10. 1007/978-3-642 -19769-7_2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
[67]
Pellissier F, Gallet C and Souto XC. 2002. Allelopathic Interaction in Forest Ecosystems. In: Allelopathy: From Molecules to Ecosystems (Eds., Reigosa MJ and Pedrol N). Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, New Hampshire, USA. 257–269.
[68]
Pengelly BC, Blamey FPC, Muchow RC. 1999. Radiation interception and the accumulation of biomass and nitrogen by soybean and three tropical annual forage legumes. Field Crops Res., 63: 99 – 112.
[69]
Powles SB and Critchley C. 1980. Effect of light intensity during growth on photo inhibition of intact attached bean leaflets. Plant Physiol., 65: 1181 – 1187.
[70]
Ravichandra NG. 2013. Fundamentals of Plant Pathology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.‏
[71]
Remison SU. 2005. Basic Principles of Crop Physiology. Sadoh Press Nig, Benin City, Benin.
[72]
Rice EL. 1984. Allelopathy. 2nd ed. Academic Press: Orlando, FL, USA.
[73]
Rice EL. 1987. Allelopathy: an overview. In: Allelochemicals: role in agriculture and forestry, ed. G.R. Waller. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 8-22.
[74]
Robertson LJ, Johannessen GS, Gjerde BK and Loncarevic S. 2002. Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 75: 119–126.
[75]
Rotaru V. 2011. The effect of phosphorus and iron on plant growth and nutrient status of two soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars under suboptimal water regime of soil. Lucrări Ştiinţifice, 54: 11 – 16.
[76]
Rotaru V and Sinclair T. 2009. Influence of plant phosphorus and iron concentrations on growth of soybean. J. Plant Nutrition, 32 (9): 1513 – 1526.
[77]
Russell AE, Laird DA and Mallarino AP. 2006. Nitrogen fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil quality in Midwestern Mollisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 70: 249 – 255.
[78]
Sandeep AR, Joseph S and Jisha MS .2008. Yield and nutrient uptake of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr) as influenced by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. World J. Agri. Sci., 4 (S): 835 – 838.
[79]
Sayed Galal Jr, Abdalla MMF and Metwally AA. 1983. Intensifying land and nutrient equivalent ratios by intercropping corn and soybean in Egypt. Soybean in tropical and subtropical cropping systems. In: Proceedings of Symposium, Tsukubo, Japan, pp. 101 – 106.
[80]
Sayed Galal Jr and Metwally AA. 1982. The variability in intercropping tolerance of 18 soybean varieties when grown with a newly developed maize stock. Res. Bull., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 2101: 1 – 15.
[81]
Sayed Galal Jr and Metwally AA. 1986. Science in practice. Proc. 2nd Conf. Agron., Alexandria Univ., 1: 489 – 503.
[82]
Seldin L, Van El Sas JD and Penido EG 1984. Bacillus azotofixans sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species from Brazilian soils and grass roots. Int J Syst Bacteriol., 34 (4):451–456
[83]
Shafik MM. 2000. Genotypic differences in intercropping tolerance among maize and soybean genotypes. Egypt J. Plant Breed., 4: 107 – 119.
[84]
Shafshak SE, Hammam GY, Mehasen SAS and Aish S. 2009. Use efficiency of mineral and organic nitrogen in six maize genotypes. Annals of Agric. Sci., Moshtohor, 47 (3):199 – 213.
[85]
Shafshak SE, Shokr El-S, Seif SAA and Shafie H. 1984. Intercropping maize and soybean as affected by various nitrogen levels. 2- Yield and yield components. Agric. Res. Rev. Abst., 62 (7): 78 p.
[86]
Sharma RA and Misra OR. 1997. Crop residues, FYM and fertilizer use in relation to growth, yield and nutrient uptake by soybean. Crop Res Hisar, 13(1): 51 – 57.
[87]
Singh AV, Shah S and Prasad B. 2010. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on plant growth promotion and nodulation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). J. Hill Agric., 1(1): 35 – 39.
[88]
Sivakumar MVK and Virmani SM. 1980. Growth and resource use of maize, pigeonpea and maize/pigeonpea intercrop in an operational research watershed. Exp. Agric., 16: 377 – 386.
[89]
Slatni T, Kroma A, Aydi S, Gouia C and Abdelly CH. 2008. Growth nitrogen fixation and ammonium assimilation in common bean subjected to iron deficiency. Plant and Soli, 312 (1–2): 49 – 57.
[90]
Smith IK. 1975. Sulphate transport in cultured tobacco. Plant Physiol., 55: 303 – 307.
[91]
Son TThN, Diep CN and Giang TThM. 2006. Effect of bradyrhizobia and phosphate solubilizing bacteria application on soybean in rotational system in the Mekong Delta. Omonrice, 14: 48 – 57.
[92]
Specht JE, Chase K, Macrander M, Graef GL, Chung J, Markwell JP, Germann M, Orf JH and Lark KG. 2001. Soybean response to water: A QTL analysis of drought tolerance. Crop Sci., 41: 493 – 509.
[93]
Stefan M, Dunca S, Olteanu Z, Oprica L, Ungureanu E, Hritcu L, Mihasan M and Cojocaru D. 2010. Soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.) inoculation with Bacillus pumilus RS3 promotes plant growth and increases seed protein yield: relevance for environmentally – friendly agricultural applications. Carpathian J. Earth and Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 131 – 138.
[94]
Sylvia DM, Fuhrmann JJ, Hartel PG and Zuberer DA. 1999. Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. 550 p.
[95]
Tavakkoli E, Rengasamy P and McDonald GK. 2010. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress. J. Exp. Bot., 61 (15): 4449 – 4459.
[96]
Trenbath BR. 1983. The dynamic properties of mixed crops. Pages 265 – 286 in Frontiers of research in agriculture (Roy, SK,ed.).Calcutta, India: Indian Statistical Institute.
[97]
Vandermeer J. 1989. The Ecology of Intercropping. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 254 p.
[98]
Vera M., Mrkovački N and Hrustić M. 2002. Interrelationship of nitrogen fixation potential and soybean yield. A Periodical of Scientific Research on Field and Vegetable Crops, 36: 133 – 139.
[99]
Weil RR and McFadden ME. 1991. Fertility and weed stress effects on performance of maize / soybean intercrop. Agron J., 83: 717 – 721.
[100]
Willey RW. 1979. Intercropping its importance and research needs. Part I: Competition and yield advantages. Field Crops Abst., 32: 1 – 10.
[101]
Xu G, Magen H, Tarchitzky J and Kafkaki U. 2000. Advances in chloride nutrition. pp. 97 – 150. In: Sparks D., ed. Advances in agronomy, Elsevier, Newark, NJ, USA.
[102]
Zhang F, Dashti N, Hynes RK and Smith DL. 1996. Plant growth – promoting rhizobacteria and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Nodulation and fixation at suboptimal root zone temperatures. Ann. Bot., 7: 453 – 459.
[103]
Zhao FJ, Hawkesford MJ and McGrath SP. 1999. Sulfur assimilation and effects of yield and quality of wheat. J. Cereal. Sci., 30: 1 – 17.
[104]
Zhao X and Fang Y. 2005. An experimental and theoretical study on the states of PHBA in aqueous solution. J. Molecular Structure, 752: 198 – 202.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186