Bioactive Propolis and Bone Loss Reduction in an Ovariectomized Rat Model of Hypogonadal Osteoporosis
American Journal of BioScience
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 217-221
Received: Nov. 13, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 28, 2014;
Published: Dec. 2, 2014
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Aiman Al-Qtaitat, Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan
Said Al-Dalaen, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan
Samir Mahgoub, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan
Mohammad Al-Rawashdeh, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Alkarak Governmental Hospital, Karak, Jordan
Jean E. Aaron, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Osteoporosis particularly affects post-menopausal women for which the ovariectomized (OVX) rat is an established model and validation tool for agents of bone loss prevention. Objective: The potency of the natural substance propolis was investigated with regard to bone loss in ovariectomized animals. Methods: The complex chemical nature of propolis extract was confirmed by HPLC. Adult female albino rats (n=70; weight 150 – 200 gm), all ovariectomized at 24 weeks were randomly divided into controls (Group I, n=35; OVX/ H2O-supplement), for comparison with treatment (Group II, n=35; OVX/ propolis-supplement) administered as 400 mg of propolis/kg daily for 9 weeks. Blood biochemical analysis included serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), with serum osteocalcin (OC) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine biochemical analysis measured Ca, P and creatinine (Cr). In addition, the corresponding densitometry of bone status comprised the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the proximal, distal and total femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; PIXImus), while the morphometry of the femoral shaft thickness was determined in longitudinal sections using an automated image analyzer. Results: A total of 27 compounds including flavonoids was identified in the propolis extract by HPLC. In comparison with OVX controls the skeleton was more substantial morphometrically in the animals receiving propolis, in terms of femoral shaft width (p<0.01) and BMD and BMC (p< 0.01). Simultaneously, the urine biochemical indices of Ca, P, Cr and Ca:Cr were significantly reduced (p<0.01) by propolis, while serum TRAP (an index of bone resorption) was also significantly lower (p<0.05), as were serum OC and ALP (indices of bone formation; p<0.05). Conclusion: Propolis is chemically complex and statistically bioactive in the oestrogen-deficient rodent, maintaining bone mass by reducing remodeling possibly by interaction with oestrogen receptors.
Jean E. Aaron,
Bioactive Propolis and Bone Loss Reduction in an Ovariectomized Rat Model of Hypogonadal Osteoporosis, American Journal of BioScience.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 217-221.
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