Effects of Moisture Content and Additives on the Fermentation Quality and Degradation of Glycoalkaloids in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Vine Silage in Tibet
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of raw material moisture content and additives on the fermentation quality and degradation of glycoalkaloids in potato vine silage and to explore new approaches for feedstuff preservation with the aim of providing a source of sustainable livestock feed. Potato vine was partially wilted to three different target moisture contents [approx. 75% (M1), 65% (M2), and 55% (M3)] and treated with (1) formic acid [1.5% fresh weight (FW), FA]; (2) pre-fermented juices (5.0 mL kg−1 FW, PFJ); (3) corn flour (100 g kg−1 DM, CF); (4) potato pulp (30% FW, PP); and (5) no additives (control). After 45 days of ensiling with polyethylene (100 mL), the fermentation quality, chemical composition, and concentration of glycoalkaloids were determined. The results showed that silage quality and glycoalkaloid concentration were significantly influenced by moisture content and additives (P < 0.05). Lactic acid (LA), pH, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased slightly with decreasing moisture content; in contrast, the concentration of LA/AA declined. LA content was highest and pH and acetic acid (AA) were lowest at M1 compared with M2 and M3. Little to no butyric acid (BA) was detected in the presence of additives. The FA-treated silage exhibited a significantly reduced pH value and ammonia-N/total-N (NH3-N/TN) content (P < 0.05) and an increased concentration of LA and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). PP-treated silage provided sufficient fermentation substrate, and the DM and WSC contents increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the PFJ and CF treatments. Supplementation with PFJ resulted in the pH of the ensiled forage stabilizing at approximately 4.40. With the addition of CF, the LA:AA ratios of the different moisture content treatments were 2.42, 2.15, and 1.75, respectively, which were significantly lower than 3:1 in the other treatments at all moisture contents. The potato glycoalkaloid content of the PV silage increased with decreasing moisture level. Glycoalkaloid concentration was significantly reduced to 0.55, 4.57, and 7.73 100 mg g−1, respectively (P < 0.05), in the different moisture treatments by the addition of FA. In conclusion, the best quality PV silage was produced at 75% moisture content with the addition of FA. Additive ensiling thus constitutes an effective approach for potato vine preservation.
Effects of Moisture Content and Additives on the Fermentation Quality and Degradation of Glycoalkaloids in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Vine Silage in Tibet, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-9.
Dai X L, Liao W H, Zhuo G, Ma R P, Gao X L, Zhang Y H. 2014. Utilization prospects and strategies of potato in Tibet. Chinese Potato Journal, 28, 57-60. (in Chinese).
Yuan J H, Han L M. 2016. Resource utilization of Potato vines. Journal of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, 35, 78-81. (in Chinese).
Muck R E, Weinber Z G, Rouse D I.1999. Ensiling of potato vines. Transaction of the ASABE, 42, 565-572.
He Y P, Guo Y L, Qin S Z, Ma S M, Du J J, Zhen C, Zhao F F. 2015. Effects of adding rice bran and wheat bran on silage quality of different cultivars of potato vines. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 27, 3311-3318. (in Chinese).
Zhao X S, Li S Y, He D J, Wang J. 2013. Structure-antifungal activity relationships of potato glycoalkaloids. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 34, 159-163. (in Chinese).
Nikolic N C, Stankovic M Z. 2005. Hydrolysis of glycoalkaloids from Solanum tuberosum L. haulm by enzymes present in plant material and by enzyme preparation. Potato Research, 48, 25-33.
Nicholson J W G, Young D A, McQueen R E, De Jong H, Wood F A. 1978. The feeding value potential of potato vines. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 58, 559-569.
Liu C, Lai Y J, Lu X N, Guo P T, Luo H L. 2016. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculants on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage quality: assessment of degradation (in situ) and gas production (in vitro). Journal of Integrative Agricultural, 15, 2834-2841.
Chen L, Yuan X J, Li J F, Wang S R, Dong Z H, Shao T. 2016. Effect of lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid on conservation characteristics, aerobic stability and in vitro gas production kinetics and digestibility of whole-crop corn based total mixed ration silage. Journal of Integrative Agricultural, 15, 1592-1600.
Zhang B Y, Zhao G Q, Jiao T, Chai J K, Gou Z Q, Xu X Z, Yan C T. 2017. Effects of different combinations of Oat hay and Whole corn silage on Ruminal fermentation of sheep. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 10, 3563-3573. (in Chinese).
Thompson D N, Barnes J M, Houghton T P. 2005. Effect of additions on ensiling and microbial community of senesced wheat straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 121, 21–46.
Zheng Yi, Matthew Yates, Hnin Aung, Cheng Yu sheng, Yu Chaowei, Guo Hongyun, Zhang Ruihong, Jean Vander Gheynst, Bryan M. Jenkins. 2011. Influence of moisture content on microbial activity and silage quality during ensilage of food processing residues. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 34, 987-995.
Li X X, Xu W B, Yang J S, Zhao H B, Xin H S, Zhang Y G. 2016. Effect of different levers of corn steep liquor addition on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of fresh rice straw silage. Animal Nutrition, 2, 345-350.
Ren H W, Dou Y W, Zhao T, Li X Y, Li Z Z, Li J P, Sun W J, Huang J J. 2016. Effects of additives on the mixed silage quality of corn stover and asparagus lettuces leaves. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 25, 142-152. (in Chinese).
Buxton D E. 2003. American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of America. Silage science and technology, 305-361.
Zhu Y H, Lian M N, Guo X S. 2013. Improve fermentation quality of alfalfa silage by addition of fermented juice prepared from Kobresia littledalei. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 29, 199-206. (in Chinese).
Rigo E, Zsedely E, Toth T, Schmidt J. 2011. Ensilaging alfalfa with hydrolyzed corn meal additive and bacterial inoculant. Acta Agronomica Ovariensis, 53, 15-23.
Cecava M J, Parker J E. 1993. Intestinal supply of amino acids in steers fed ruminally degradable and undegradable crude protein sources alone and in combination. Science of Anita, 71, 1596-1605.
Zhang W, Zhang Y, Liu Z. 2012. Effect of different absorbents on fermentation quality of wet potato pulp. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 11, 4230-4235.
Morris, S. C., Lee, T. H., 1984. The toxicity and teratogenicity of Solanaceae glycoalkaloids, particularly those of the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Food Technol, 36, 118-124.
Konig H. 1953. Investigations concerning the action of solanine in cattle and sheep in connection with feeding potato foliage. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde. 95, 97–118.
M Malecky, M Ghadbeigi, H Aliarabi, AA Bahari, K Zaboli. 2016. Effect of replacing alfalfa with processed potato vines on growth performance, ruminal and total tract digestibility and blood metabolites in fattening lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 146, 13-22.
Salehi S, Lashkari S, Abbasi R E, Kamangar H. 2014. Nutrient Digestibility and Chemical Composition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Vine as Alternative Forage in Ruminant Diets. Agriculture Communications, 2, 63-66.
Song G, Zhu X Q, Zhang S, Zhuang Y F. 2017. Effects of fermented green juice and cellulase on the fermentation quality of rice straw silage and rice straw with sugarcane tip mixed silage . Chinese Animal Husband & Veterinary Medicine, 44, 3512-3518. (in Chinese).
Playne M J, Mcdonald P. 1966. The buffering constituents of herbage and of silage. Journal of the Science of food and Agriculture, 17, 264-268.
Chen L, Guo G, Yu C Q, Zhang J, Shimojo M, Shao T. 2014. The effects of replacement of whole-plant corn with oat and common vetch on the fermentation quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silage in Tibet. Animal Science Journal, 86, 69-76.
Yang S.1999. Analysis o f feed and feed quality detection technology. (China Agricultural University Press), Beijing. pp.16-27.(in Chinese).
Thomas T A. 2010. An automated procedure for the determination of soluble carbohydrates in herbage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 28, 639-642.
Van Soest P J, Robertson J B, Lewis B A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Zhang W, Xiong X Y, Li X. 2006. Extraction and analysis of solanine in potato. Journal of Hunan Agricultural University, 32, 665-667. (in Chinese).
Haddadin M S Y, Humeid M A, Qaroot F A, Robinson R K. 2001. Effect of exposure to light on the solanine content of two varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) popular in Jordan. Food Chemistry, 73, 205-208.
Zhang X F. 2004. Forage feed processing and storage. (China Agriculture Publishers), Beijing. pp. 5-33.
Donald P M, Henderson A R, Herson D J E. 1991. The Biochemistry of Silage (2nd). (Chalcombe Publishers), Bucks. pp. 158.
Amer S, Hassanat F, Berthiaume R, Seguin P, Mustafa A F. 2012. Effects of water soluble carbohydrate content on ensiling characteristics, chemical composition and in vitro gas production of forage millet and forage sorghum silages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 177, 23-29.
Moselhy M A, Borba J P, Borba A E. 2015. Improving the nutritive value, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of Hedychium gardnerianum silage through application of additives at ensiling time. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 206, 8-18.
Meeske R, Basson H M, Cruywagen C W. 1999. The effect of a lactic acid bacterial inoculants with enzymes on the fermentation dynamics, intake and digestibility of digit aria epicanthi silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 81, 237-248.
McDonald P, Henderson N, Heron S. 1991. The biochemistry of silage (2nd). (Chalcombe Publishers), Marlow. pp.340.
McAllister T A, Hristov A N. 2000. The fundamentals of making good quality silage. Advances in Dairy Technology, 12, 381–399.
Luo R R, Guo Y L. 2017. Research progress of silage modulation on potato vines. China Feed, 4, 34-37. (in Chinese).
Dunière L, Sindou J, Chaucheyras-Durand F, Chevallier I, Thévenot-Sergentet D. 2013. Silage processing and strategies to prevent persistence of undesirable microorganisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 182, 1–15.
Troller J A, Stinson J V.1981. Moisture requirements for growth and metabolite production by lactic acid bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 42, 682-687.
Broderick G A, Walgenbach R P, Sterrenburing E. 2000. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage as the sole forage. Dairy Science, 83, 1543-1551.
Seppälä A, Heikkilä T, Mäki M, Rinne M. 2016. Effects of additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of grass silages and total mixed rations. Grass and Forage Science, 71, 458–471.
Kim J G, Chung E S, Seo S, Ham J S, Kang W S, Kim D A. 2001. Effects of maturity at harvest and wilting days on quality of round baled rye silage. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 14, 1233-1237.
Manyawu G J, Sibanda S, Mutisi C, Chakoma I C, Ndiweni P N B. 2003. The effect of pre-wilting and incorporation of maize meal on the fermentation of bana grass silage. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 16, 843-851.
Vissers M M, Driehuis F, Te Giffel M C, De Jong P, Lankveld J M. 2007. Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 928-936.
Kung L Jr, Stokes M R. 2001. Analyzing silages for fermentation end products. University of Delaware College of Agriculture & Natural Resources.
Alli I, Fairbairn R, Noroozi E, Baker B E. 2006. The effects of molasses on the fermentation of chopped whole-plant leucaena. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 35, 285-289.
Kung L Jr, Robinson J R, Ranjit N K, Chen J H, Golt C M, Pesek J D. 2000. Microbial populations, fermentation end-products, and aerobic stability of corn silage treated with ammonia or a propionic acid-based preservative. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1479-1486.
Kung L Jr, Taylor C C, Lynch M P. 2003. The effect of treating alfalfa with Lactobacillus bunchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 336-343.
Yu Zhu. 2002. Studies on grass silage. China Agricultural University Postdoctoral Research Report. (in Chinses).
Cao L M, Goto M, Karita S, Yamamoto Y, Mizutani M. 2002. Effect of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage and its energy and nitrogen utilization by dry cows. Japanese Journal of Grassland Science, 8, 227-235.
Noordar H, Malecky M, Najafabadi. H J, Navidshad B. 2017. Evaluating nutritional value of processed potato vines by in vitro gas production. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 60, 189-204.
Zheng H C, Yang J Y, Ying R L, Huang X, Wu J L, Jiang Y Q. 2017. Effects of wilting and additives on fermentation quality and nutritional value of round-baled rice straw silages. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 29, 1312-1318. (in Chinese).
Friedman M. 2006. Potato glycoalkaloids and metabolites: roles in the plant and in the diet. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 54, 8655–8681.
Walker AM. 1997. The effect of α-solanine on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro: an examination of undocumented beliefs. Unpublished thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Caldwell K A, Grosjean O K, Henika P R, Friedman M. 1991. Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase induction by potato glycoalkaloids in rats. Food Chem, 29, 531-535.
Toyoda M, Rausch W D, Inoue K, Ohno Y, Fujiyama Y, Takagi K, Saito Y. 1991. Comparison of solanaceous glycoalkaloids-evoked calcium influx in different types of cultured cells. Toxicol, 5, 347-351.
Langkilde S, Schroder M, Stewart D, Meyer O, Conner S, Davies H, Poulsen M. 2008. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 56, 8753–8760.
Friedman M, McDonald G, Haddon W F. 1993. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of carbohydrate groups of potato glycoal-kaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemisgry, 41, 1397–1406.