Woody Species Richness and Diversity at Ades Dry Afromontane Forest of South Eastern Ethiopia
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 44-52
Received: Jan. 12, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 22, 2019; Published: Apr. 18, 2019
Views 658      Downloads 210
Muktar Reshad, College of Natural Resource and Environmental Science, Oda Bultum University, Chiro, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Beyene, College of Natural Resource and Environmental Science, Oda Bultum University, Chiro, Ethiopia
Muktar Mohammed, College of Natural Resource and Environmental Science, Oda Bultum University, Chiro, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The study was conducted at Ades Dry Afromontane Forest at 407 km Southeast of Addis Ababa to assess the diversity and composition of woody plant species. The sampling design was based on a US Forest Service model for the indigenous forests. A total of 60 circular plots each with an area of 0.017 ha were arranged in groups of four where a central plot is surrounded by three plots that are each at 36.6m from the central plot. In each plot, all woody plants that were ≥10cm in DBH were sampled for floristic diversity. Biodiversity analyses were accomplished using the Shannon-Weaver’s Index (H’) to assess the tree species diversity and Shannon Equitability (H’E) was calculated to assess the evenness values of species while the Importance Value Index (IVI) of each woody species was analyzed to see the Importance of individual tree and shrub species at the site. A total of 65 trees and shrub species belonging to 38 families had been recorded in this study. Rosaceae was a family with the highest number of species comprising about 9.23 % of the total number of species. The H’ ranged between 0.004 to 0. 362 with the overall H’ of 2.82. The H’E values ranged between 0.001 to 0.087 with a mean value of 0.01. A mean H’E value of 0.01 indicates that the relative homogeneity of woody plant species of the sampled plots was 1% of the maximum possible even population. The evenness values are not enough to justify uniformity in composition of tree species. The mean IVI value ranged between 0.36 to 49.06 with mean IVI value of 6.0. In this study only 15% of the recorded species were found with IVI values > 10 and the rest of 85% have IVI values < 10. The variation in survival mechanisms of species made some species to be dominant and most species to be lower in number in a given ecosystem. Tree species with high IVI were also found to have higher H’ of diversity. The spatial distribution and dominance of species can be affected both by the properties of the species themselves and the environmental factors. The diversity of woody species observed in the Ades dry afromontane is encouraging since, among other reasons, it is useful for conservation strategy.
Shannon-Weaver, Evenness, Trees, Shrubs, Sampling Design, Important Value Index, DBH
To cite this article
Muktar Reshad, Alemayehu Beyene, Muktar Mohammed, Woody Species Richness and Diversity at Ades Dry Afromontane Forest of South Eastern Ethiopia, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 44-52. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20190702.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abera A. and Yasin A. 2018. Diversity and Abundance of Woody Plant Species of Assosa Forest Field Gene, Benishanigul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. International Journal of Plant Biology & Research 6(5): 1100.
Abrham Abiyu, Vacik, H. and Glatzel, G. 2006. Population viability risk management applied to Boswellia papyfera (Del.) Hochst in Northeastern Ethiopia. Journal of the Dry lands1 (2):98–107.
Austin M. P. &Heyligers P. C. 1989. Vegetation survey design for conservation: gradsect sampling of forestsin north-eastern New South Wales. Biological Conservation 50:13-32.
Barbour M. D., Burk J. H. & Pitts W. D. 1987. Terrestrial plant ecology, 2nd Edition. Benjamin Cummings Inc., Menlo Park, CA, 634p.
Bekalo, T. H., S. D. Woodmatas & Z. A. Woldemariam. 2009. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5:26-40.
Belaynah, A., Z. Asfaw, S. Demissew & N. F. Bussa. 2012. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agropastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethno medicine 8:42-64.
Carlos Almazán-Núñez, R., María del Coro Arizmendi, Luis E. Eguiarte and Pablo Corcuera. 2012. Changes in composition, diversity and structure of woody plants in successional stages of tropical dry forest in southwest Mexico. Revista Mexicanade Biodiversidad 83:1096-1109.
Cazzolla Gatti R, Vaglio Laurin G, Valentini R. 2017. Tree species diversity of three Ghanaian reserves. iForest 10: 362-368. – doi: 10.3832/ifor2056-010 [online 2017-03-07].
Chauhan DS, Dhanai CS, Bhupendra S, Chauhan S, Todaria NP, Coley PD, Barone JA. 1996. Herbivory and plant defenses in tropical forests Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27:305-335.
Deka J, Tripathi PO, Khan LM. 2012. High Dominance of Shorea robusta Gaertn. in Alluvial Plain Kamrup Sal Forest of Assam, N. E. India Int. J. Ecosys. 2(4):67-73.
Demel Teketay. 1997. Seedling populations and regeneration of woody species in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 98:149–165.
EFAP. 1994. Ethiopian Forestry Action Program. (EFAP), Addis Ababa.
EMA. 1988. National Atlas of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Mapping Authority, Addis Ababa.
Hedberg, I., Friis, I. and Edwards, S. 2004. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa and Department of Systematic Botany, ppsala University, Uppsala.
Kent, M., and P. Coker. 1992. Vegetation description and analysis Belhaven Press, London.
Kessy, J. F. 1998. Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources in the East Usambara Forest Reserves: Conventional Views and Local Perspectives. PhD thesis, 168pp.
Khan ML, Rai JPN, Tripathi RS. 1986. Regeneration and survival of tree seedlings and sprouts tropical deciduous and subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India. Forest Ecololgy and Management 14,293-304.
Kidanemariam K., Teshome S., Satish kumar B. 2015. Forest Carbon Stock in Woody Plants of AdesForest, Western Hararghe Zone of Ethiopia and its Variation along Environmental Factors:Implication for Climate Change Mitigation. Journal of Natural SciencesResearch. Vol. 5, No. 2.
Kindt, R. Noordin, Q., Njui, A. and Ruigu, S. 2005. Biodiversity Conservation through Agroforestry:Managing Tree Species Diversity within a Net work of Community- based Non-governmental, Governmental and Research Organizations in Western Kenya. Paper presented at 15thAnnual Conference of the Eastern Africa Environmental Network on Networking for Biodiversity, 27-28 May, National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi.
Lou, J. 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113 (2): 363–375.
Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton University Press, 192pp. Princeton
Malik ZA & Nautiyal MC. 2016. Species richness and diversity along the altitudinal gradient in Tungnath, the Himalayan benchmark site of HIMADRI. Tropical Plant Research 3(2): 396–407.
Mesfin Woldearegay, Zerihun Woldu and Ermias Lulekal. 2018. Species diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody plants in Yegof dry afromontane forest, Northeastern Ethiopia. European Journal of Advanced Research in Biological and Life Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 4. ISSN 2056-5984.
Muktar Reshad, Muktar Mohammed, Ahmed Mohammed and Alemayehu Beyene. 2017. Diversity of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and its Source Plant Species: The Case of Jello-Muktar Forest, Eastern Ethiopia.
Muller-Dombois, D., H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Willey and Sons, New York. Region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32: 476-496.
Rogers, P. C. & Ryel, R. J. 2008. Lichen community change in response to succession in aspenforests of the Rocky Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 256: 1760–1770.
Shiferaw W, Lemenih M & Gole TWM. 2018. Analysis of plant species diversity and forest structure in Arero dry Afromontane forest of Borena zone, South Ethiopia Tropical Plant Research 5(2): 129–140.
Solbrig, O. T., E. Medina, and J. F. Silva. 1996. Biodiversity and Savana ecosystem process: A Prespective Springer-Verlag Berlin Hedelberg, Berlin.
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 2007. Field methods instructions for Phase 2 (Forest Inventory) and Phase 3 (Forest Health) of the National Forest Inventory and Analysis program.
Wassie, A. & Teketay, D. 2005. Soil seed banks in Northern Ethiopia: implications for the conservation ofwoodyplants. Flora 201:32–43.
Wilder, C., Brooks, T. & Lens, L. 1998. Vegetation structure and composition of the Taita Hills forest. Journal of East African Natural History 87:181–187.
Yineger, H., D. Yewhalaw & D. Teketay. 2008. Ethno medicinal plant knowledge and practices of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4:11.dx. doi.org/10.1186/1746-42694-11.
Zerihun Girma, George Chuyong, Paul Evangelista, and Yosef Mamo. 2018. Vascular Plant Species Composition, Relative Abundance, Distribution, and Threats in Arsi Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Mountain Research and Development 38(2): 143-152.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186