A gene encoded WD-40 repeat protein (OsWD1) was isolated from rice cells to study the platform for protein-protein interactions in germinating seeds. The expression of OsWD1 was found to be specifically induced at 3 d of seed germination. By ectopic overexpressing (OsWD1-Ox) or RNA interference gene knockdown (OsWD1-Ri) of OsWD1, respectively. Results revealed that the rice seedlings and grain size were enhanced in OsWD1-Ox lines, but were reduced in OsWD1-Ri lines. Moreover, the expression of GA-inducible gene, OsEP3A, which was strongly induced in OsWD1-Ox lines during rice seed germination. By iodine staining in starch containing solid medium, the a-amylase activities were further enhanced in OsWD1-Ox lines regardless with or without exogenous GA in the medium. These results suggested that OsWD1 might acts as a platform for protein-protein interactions to regulate seedling and seed development in rice by a GA-dependent manner.
Functional Characterization of a WD-Repeat Protein Gene (OsWD1) in Rice, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2018, pp. 18-27.
E. J. Neer, C. J. Schmidt, R. Nambudripad, T. F. Smith “The ancient regulatory-protein family of WD-repeat proteins” Nature, vol. 371, pp. 297-300. 1994.
S. van Nocker, P. Ludwig “The WD-repeat protein superfamily in Arabidopsis: conservation and divergence in structure and function” BMC Genomics, vol. 4, 50. 2003.
J. Guo, J. G. Chen “RACK1 genes regulate plant development with unequal genetic redundancy in Arabidopsis” BMC Plant Biol, vol. 8, 108; doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-108. 2008.
E. A. Ananieva, G. E. Gillaspy, A. Ely, R. N. Burnette, F. L. Erickson “Interaction of the WD40 domain of a myoinositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase with SnRK1 links inositol, sugar, and stress signaling” Plant Physiol, vol. 148, pp.1868-1882. 2008.
T. F. Smith, C. Gaitatzes, K. Saxena, E. J. Neer “The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions” Trends Biochem Sci, vol. 24, pp. 181-185. 1999.
Y. Miyata, T. Shibata, M. Aoshima, T. Tsubata, E. Nishida “The molecular chaperone TRiC/CCT binds to the Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) repeat protein WDR68 and promotes its folding, protein kinase DYRK1A binding, and nuclear accumulation” J Biol Chem, vol. 289, pp. 33320-33332. 2014.
J. C. Miller, W. R. Chezem, N. K. Clay “Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity” Front Plant Sci, vol. 6, 1108. 2016.
X. Xu, I. Paik, L. Zhu, Q. Bu, X. Huang, X. W. Deng, E. Huq “PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 enhances the E3 ligase activity of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 to synergistically repress photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis” Plant Cell, vol. 26, pp. 1992-2006. 2014.
K. A. Lease, J. Wen, J. Li, J. T. Doke, E. Liscum, J. C. Walker “A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein b subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development” Plant Cell, vol. 13, pp. 2631-2641. 2001.
S. Hoppins, L. Lackner, J. Nunnari “The machines that divide and fuse mitochondria” Annu Rev Biochem, vol. 76, pp. 751-780. 2007.
Z. Ben-Simhon, S. Judeinstein, T. Nadler-Hassar, T. Trainin, I. Bar-Ya’akov, H. Borochov-Neori, D. Holland “A pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development” Planta, vol. 234, pp. 865-881. 2011.
I. Mascheretti, R. Battaglia, D. Mainieri, A. Altana, M. Lauria, V. Rossi “The WD40-repeat proteins NFC101 and NFC102 regulate different aspects of maize development through chromatin modification” Plant Cell, vol. 25, pp. 404-420. 2013.
X. W. Deng, M. Matsui, N. Wei, D. Wagner, A. M. Chu, K. A. Feldmann, P. H. Quail “COP1, an Arabidopsis regulatory gene, encodes a protein with both a zinc-binding motif and a Gb homologous domain” Cell, vol. 7, pp. 791-801. 1992.
T. W. McNellis, K. U. Torii, X. W. Deng “Expression of an N-terminal fragment of COP1 confers a dominant-negative effect on light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis” Plant Cell, vol. 8, pp. 1491-1503. 1996.
S. V. Nocker, P. Ludwig “The WD-repeat protein superfamily in Arabidopsis: conservation and divergence in structure and function” BMC Genomics, vol. 4, 50. 2003.
R. A. Ach, P. Taranto, W. Gruissem “A conserved family of WD-40 proteins binds to the retinoblastoma protein in both plants and animals” Plant Cell, vol. 9, pp. 1595-1606. 1997.
Y. W. Quian, Y. C. J. Wang, R. E. Hollingsworth, D. Jones, N. Ling, E. Y. H. P. Lee “A retinoblastoma-binding protein related to a negative regulator of Ras in yeast” Nature, vol. 364, pp. 648-652. 1993.
Y. W. Quian, E. Y. H. P. Lee “Dual retinoblastoma-binding proteins with properties related to a negative regulator of Ras in yeast” J Biol Chem, vol. 270, pp. 25507-25513. 1995.
R. Ruggieri, K. Tanaka, M. Nakafuku, Y. Kaziro, E. A. Toh, K. Matsumoto “MSI1, a negative regulator of the RAS-cAMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol. 86, pp. 8778-8782. 1989.
M. Ohnacker, S. M. L. Barabino, P. J. Preker, W. Keller “The WD-repeat protein Pfs2p bridges two essential factors within the yeast pre-mRNA 3’-end-processing complex” EMBO J, vol. 19, pp. 37-47. 2000.
R. P. Bhalerao, K. Salchert, L. Bakó, L. Ökrész, L. Szabados, T. Muranaka, Y. Machida, J. Schell, C. Koncz “Regulatory interaction of PRL1 WD protein with Arabidopsis SNF1-like protein kinases” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol. 96, pp. 5322-5327. 1999.
K. Sompornpailin, Y. Makita, M. Yamazaki, K. Saito “A WD-repeat-containing putative regulatory protein in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens” Plant Mol Biol, vol. 50, pp. 485-495. 2002.
Q. Tieu, V. Okreglak, K. Naylor, J. Nunnari “The WD repeat protein, Mdv1p, functions as a molecular adaptor by interacting with Dnm1p and Fis1p during mitochondrial fission” J Cell Biol, vol. 158, pp. 445-452. 2002.
Y. Ouyang, X. Huang, Z. Lu, J. Yao, Ouyang et al. “Genomic survey, expression profile and co-expression network analysis of OsWD40 family in rice” BMC Genomics, vol. 13, 100. 2012.
X. Gao, Z. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Chen, X. Li, C. Wu “OsLIS-L1 encoding a lissencephaly type-1-like protein with WD40 repeats is required for plant height and male gametophyte formation in rice” Planta, vol. 235, pp. 713-727. 2012.
Y. Kwon, S. I. Yu, J. H. Park, Y. Li, J. H. Han, H. Alavilli, J. I. Cho, T. H. Kim, J. S. Jeon, B. H. Lee “OsREL2, a rice TOPLESS homolog functions in axillary meristem development in rice inflorescence” Plant Biotechnol Rep, vol. 6, pp. 213-224. 2012.
A. Yoshida, Y. Ohmori, H. Kitano, F. Taguchi-Shiobara, H. Y. Hirano “ABERRANT SPIKELET AND PANICLE1, encoding a TOPLESS-related transcriptional co-repressor, is involved in the regulation of meristem fate in rice” Plant J, vol. 70, pp. 327-33. 2012.
T. Murashige, F. Skoog “A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures” Physiol Plant, vol. 15, pp. 473-497. 1962.
W. B. Bruce, A. H. Christensen, T. Klein, M. Fromm, P. H. Quail “Photoregulation of a phytochrome gene promoter from oat transferred into rice by particle bombardment” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol. 86, pp. 9692-9696. 1989.
S. L. Ho, W. F. Tong, S. M. Yu “Multiple mode regulation of a cysteine proteinase gene expression in rice” Plant Physiol, vol. 122, pp. 57-66. 2000.
S. L. Ho, Y. H. Chao, W. F. Tong, S. M. Yu “Sugar differenti al and coordinately regulates gene expression via a complex signal transduction network and multiple control mechanisms” Plant Physiol, vol. 125, pp. 877-890. 2001.
A. Marchler-Bauer, J. B. Anderson, C. DeWeese-Scott, N. D. Fedorova, L. Y. Geer, et al. “CDD: a curated Entrez database of conserved domain alignments” Nucleic Acids Res, vol. 31, pp. 383-387. 2003.
I. Letunic, L. Goodstadt, N. J. Dickens, T. Doerks, J. Schultz, R. Mott, F. Ciccarelli, R. R. Copley, C. P. Ponting, P. Bork “Recent improvements to the SMART domain-based sequence annotation resource” Nucleic Acids Res, vol. 30, pp. 242-244. 2002.
Z. N. Yang, X. R. Ye, J. Molina, M. L. Roose, T. E. Mirkov “Sequence analysis of a 282-kilobase region surrounding the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (Ctv) locus in Poncirus trifoliate L. Raf” Plant Physiol, vol. 131, pp. 482-492. 2003.
K. Gomi, M. Matsuoka “Gibberellin signalling pathway” Curr Opin Plant Biol, vol. 6, pp. 489-493. 2003.
H. Itoh, M. Matsuoka, C. M. Steber “A role for the ubiquitin – 26S-proteasome pathway in gibberellins signaling” Trends Plant Sci, vol. 8, pp. 492-497. 2003.
S. Pattanaik, B. Patra, S. K. Singh, L. Yuan “An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis” Front Plant Sci, vol. 5, 259. 2014.
R. P. Pharis, R. W. King “Gibberellins and reproductive development in seed plants” Annu Rev Plant Physiol, vol. 36, pp. 517-568. 1985.
S. M. Swain, J. B. Reid, Y. Kamiya “Gibberellins are required for embryo and seed development in pea” Plant J, vol. 12, pp. 1329-1338. 1997.
R. W. King, L. T. Evans “Gibberellins and flowering of grasses and cereals” Annu Rev Plant Biol, vol. 54, pp. 307-328. 2003.
J. A. Long, C. Ohno, Z. R. Smith, E. M. Meyerowitz “TOPLESS regulates apical embryonic fate in Arabidopsis” Science, vol. 312, pp. 1520-1523. 2006.
Z. Liu, V. Karmarkar “Groucho/Tup1 family co-repressors in plant development” Trends Plant Sci, vol. 13, pp. 137-144. 2008.
H. Szemenyei, M. Hannon, J. A. Long “TOPLESS mediates auxin-dependent transcriptional repression during Arabidopsis embryogenesis” Science, vol. 319, pp. 1384-1386. 2008.
L. Pauwels, et al. “NINJA connects the co-repressor TOPLESS to jasmonate signaling” Nature, vol. 464, pp. 788-791. 2010.
B. Causier, M. Ashworth, W. Guo, B. Davies “The TOPLESS interactome: A framework for gene repression in Arabidopsis” Plant Physiol, vol. 158, pp. 423-438. 2012.
Q. Tao, D. Guo, B. Wei, F. Zhang, C. Pang, H. Jiang, J. Zhang, T. Wei, H. Gu, L. J. Qu, G. Qina “The TIE1 transcriptional repressor links TCP transcription factors with TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED corepressors and modulates leaf development in Arabidopsis” Plant Cell, vol. 25, pp. 421-437. 2013.
J. Fukazawa, H. Teramura, S. Murakoshi, K. Nasuno, N. Nishida, T. Ito, M. Yoshida, Y. Kamiya, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Takahashia “DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis” Plant Cell, vol. 26, pp. 2920-2938. 2014.
J. Fukazawa, T. Ito, Y. Kamiya, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Takahashi “Binding of GID1 to DELLAs promotes dissociation of GAF1 from DELLA in GA dependent manner” Plant Signal Behav, vol. 10, 10, e1052923. 2015.
T. P. Sun, F. Gubler “Molecular mechanism of gibberellins signaling in plants” Annu Rev Plant Biol, vol. 55, pp. 197-223. 2004.