Small-Scale Maize Seed Production in West and Central Africa: Profitability, Constraints and Options
Seed plays a critical role in increasing agricultural productivity. Seed has been described as an essential, strategic, and relatively inexpensive input that often determines the upper limit of crop yields and the productivity of all other agricultural inputs. Given the critical role that seed plays in agricultural production, a key question is how to facilitate the development of a seed system that is capable of generating, producing and distributing new seed varieties that meet the needs of all farmers, in a cost-effective way given the critical role that improved varieties play in increasing agricultural production. The study was conducted in Nigeria and Cameroon in West and Central Africa respectively. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in this study to select 167 maize seed producers. Descriptive and quantitative techniques were employed in the analysis of the study data. Descriptive analytical tools such as frequency tables were used to describe the socio economic characteristics of respondents and options in maize seed production. Normalised profit function analysis was used to determine the profitability of seed production and importance indices were used to rank seed production constraints. Finally regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting the profitability of maize seed production. The survey conducted in the two countries revealed that there is no formal maize seed production system in Cameroon. Maize seed in Cameroon came from either the government agencies or from the farmers. However, in Nigeria, there is formal maize seed production system. Evidence from the study has shown that maize seed industry in WCA (Nigeria and Cameroon in particular) has not developed remarkably. According to study, a seed system that would integrate large scale and small scale seed companies with the individual seed producers by way of integrating seed producers as out growers or contract growers to the seed companies seems to be the best option. Finally, government agencies could assist the informal sector by providing foundation seed, extension advice on seed production, processing, treatment and storage and legal framework that permits seed marketing. This would facilitate the growth of small-scale entrepreneurs in the informal sector. This is very relevant in Cameroon where there were no small-scale formal seed producers. The evidence provided in this study could lead to the sustainability of maize seed production in WCA where seed companies exist but struggling to survive and could facilitate the establishment of private seed enterprises in Cameroon where none existed. Based on the findings, numerous policy recommendations are proposed.
Awotide Diran Olawale,
Mafouasson Hortense Noelle Tontsa,
Small-Scale Maize Seed Production in West and Central Africa: Profitability, Constraints and Options, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 1-10.
Abalu, G.I. (2001). “Policy Issues in Maize Research and Development in sub-Saharan Africa in the Next Millennium”. In Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M.A.B., M. Ouedraogo, and R.J. Carsky, (eds.), 2001. Impact, Challenges and Prospects of Maize in West and Central Africa: Proceedings of a Regional Maize Workshop, IITA-Cotonou, Benin Republic, 4-7 May, 1999. WECAMAN/IITA.
Alimi, T. (2001). “Economic Rationale of Integration in Poultry Production System”. Lesotho Social Science Review, 7(2):138-156.
Alimi, T., Idowu, E.O. and Tijani, A.A. (2004). “Optimal Farm Size for Profitable and Sustainable Certified Maize Seed Production Enterprise in Oyo State, Nigeria”. Botswana Journal of Economics, 1(2):135-146.
Almekinders, C .J. M., Louwaars, N. P. and de Bruijn, G. H. (1994). “Local Seed Systems and their Importance for an Improved Seed Supply in Developing Countries”. Euphytica, 78: 207-216.
Byerlee, D and C. Eicher, “1997). “Africa’s Emerging Maize Revolution”. Boulder, Colorado, Lynee Rienner Publishers.
Cromwell, E., E. Friss-Hansen, and M. Turner (1992). “The Seed Sector in Developing Countries: A Framework for Performance Analysis”. Working Paper 65, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Fakorede, M.A.B, B. Badu-Apraku, A.Y. Kamara, A Menkir and S.O. Ajala. (2003). “Maize Revolution in West and Central Africa: An Overview”. In. Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M.A.B., M. ouedraogo, R.J. Carsky, and A. Menkir (eds.), (2003). Maize Revolution in West and Central Africa: Proceedings of a Regional Maize Workshop, IITA-Cotonou, Benin Republic, 14-18 May, 2001. WECAMAN/IITA.
Fakorede, M.A.B, B. Badu-Apraku, O. Coulibaly and J. M Fajemisin (2001). “Maize Research and Development Priories in sub-Saharan Africa in the Next Millennium”. In Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M.A.B., M. Ouedraogo, and R.J. Carsky, (eds.), 2001. Impact, Challenges and Prospects of Maize in West and Central Africa: Proceedings of a Regional Maize Workshop, IITA-Cotonou, Benin Republic, 4-7 May, 1999. WECAMAN/IITA.
Fakorede, M.A.B. (1995). “IITA – Private Seed Companies/NGOs Liaison Activities”. A Report of the Current Status and Future Opportunity for a Greater Efficiency in Collaborative Efforts to Improve Maize Production. Pp71.
Gemeda, A., G. Aboma, H. Verkuijl, and W. Mwangi. (2001). “Farmers’ Maize Seed Systems in Western Oromia, Ethiopia”. Mexico, D.F.: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO). Pp 42.
Ghijsen, H. (1996). “The Development of Varietal Testing and Breeder’s Rights in the Netherlands”. Pages 223-226. In: Integrating Seed Systems for Annual Food Crops (van Amstel, H., Bottema, J., Sidik, M and van Santen, C., eds.) Bogor, Indonesia: CGPRT Centre.
Jaffee, S. and J. Srivastava (1994). “The Roles of the Private and Public Sectors in Enhancing the Performance of Seed Systems”. The World Bank Development. The World Bank for the Construction and Development. The World Bank, 9(1).97–117.
Jose, H.D. and Valluru, R.S.K. (1997). “Insight from the Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994”. Agribusiness, 13(6). 587-598.
Langyinto, A. (2005). “An Analysis of the Maize Seed Sector in Southern Africa”. A paper presented at a Rockefeller Foundation Workshop on Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems for African Crops. Nairobi, Kenya 24-27 January, 2005. Pp25.
Lanteri, S. and Quagliotti, L. (1997). “Problems Related to Seed Production in the African Region”. Euphytica, 96:173-183.
Louwaars, M.P. and G.A.M. Marrewijk (1999). Seed Supply Systems in Developing Countries, CTA.
Manyong, V.M., J.G. Kling, K.O. Makinde, S.O. Ajala, and A. Menkir. (2000). “Impact of IITA-improved Germplasm on Maize Production in West and Central Africa”. Impact, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Maredia, M., and J. Howard, (1994). “Facilitating Seed Sector Transformation in Africa: key fingings from the literature”. Global Bureau, Office of Agriculture and Food Security. USAID. Policy Systhesis, 33.1-6.
Maredia, M., J. Howard, and D. Boughton, with A. Naseem, M. Wanzala, and K. Kajisa (1999). “Increasing Seed System Efficiency in Africa: Concepts, Strategies and Issues”. MSU (Michigan State University) International Development Working Paper No. 77.
Morris M. L., J. Rusike and M. Smale. (1998). “Maize Seed Industries: A Conceptual Framework”. In Morris M. L. (ed.) Maize Seed Industries in Developing Countries. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 35- 54.
Monyo, E. S. (1998). “Analytical Review of Regional Impacts of SMIP: 15 Years of Pearl Millet Improvement in the SADC Region”. Paper presented at Sorghum and Pearl Millet and Development in Southern Africa: Stakeholders Review and Planning Conference. 27-31 Jul. 1998. Harare. Zimbabwe. SADC/ICRISAT Sorghum and Millet Improvement Programme. Bulawayo Zimbabwe.
Musa, T. M., and van der Mheen-Sluijer, J. (1977). “Review of the State of Art in the Field of Local Level Seed Supply Systems”. Harare. Published by SADC/GTZ Project Promotion of Small Scale Seed Production by Self Help Groups.
Musa, T. M, and Rusike, J. (1997). “Constraints on Variety Release, Seed Production and Distribution of Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Groundnut and Pigeonpea”. ICRISAT Southern and Eastern Africa Region Working Paper No 97/02 (SADC/ICRISAT-SMIP). Matopos.
Nambiro, E, H. De Groote and W. O. K’osura (2002). “Market Structure and Conduct of the Hybrid Maize Seed Industry, a Case Study of the Trans Nzoia District in Western Kenya”. In Friesen D.K. and A. F. E. Palmer (eds.). Integrated Approaches to Higher Maize Productivity in the New Millenium. Proceedings of the 7th Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 11 - 15 February 2002. Mexico, D. F.: CIMMYT, pp. 474-479.
Odendo M., H. De Groote, O. Odongo and P. Oucho. (2002). “Participatory Rural Appraisal of Farmers’ Maize Selection Criteria and Perceived Production Constraints in the Moist Mid-altitude Zone of Kenya”. IRMA Socio-Economic Working Paper No. 02-01. Nairobi, Kenya: CIMMYT and KARI.
Omaliko, C.P.E. (1998). “Nigeria Seed Industry and its Potential Role in Food Security within the West and Central African Sub-region”. Proceedings of the International workshop on Seed security for food security. Florence, Italy, 30 November – 1 December 1997. FAO 1998.
Rohrbach, D. D. (1997). “Farmer to Farmer Seed Movements in Zimbabwe: Issues Arising”. Pages 171- 179. In: Alternative Strategies for Smallholder Seed Supply. Proceedings of the International Conference on Options for Strengthening National and Regional Systems in Africa and West Asia..10-14 Mar. 1997, Harare, Zimbabwe. Rohrbach, D. D.. Bishaw, Z, and van Gastel A. J. G.; (eds.). International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
Smith, J., A.D. Barau, A. Goldman, and J.H. Mareck. (1994). “The Role of Technology in Agricultural Intensification: the Evolution of Maize Production in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria”. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 42. 537–554.
Smith, J., G. Weber, V.M. Manyong, and M.A.B. Fakorede (1997). “Fostering Sustainable Increases in Maize Productivity in Nigeria”. Chapter 8 in Africa’s Emerging Maize Revolution, edited by D. Byerlee, and C.K. Eicher, Lynne Rienner Publishers, London, UK.
Tripp, R. B. (1977). “Between States and Markets-Innovations for Small Scale Seed Provision”. Pages 195- 210. In: Alternative Strategies for Smallholder Seed Supply. Proceedings of the International Conference on Options for Strengthening National and Regional Systems in Africa and West Asia..10-14 Mar. 1997, Harare, Zimbabwe (Rohrbach, D. D.. Bishaw, Z, and van Gastel A. J. G.; eds.). International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
Venkatesan., V. (1994). Seed Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Options. Discussion Paper No. 266. Technical Department, Africa Region. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.