Hill Torrents Potentials and Spate Irrigation Management to Support Agricultural Strategies in Pakistan
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 289-295
Received: Nov. 24, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 6, 2014;
Published: Dec. 18, 2014
Views 2907 Downloads 229
Muhammad Asif, Scientific Officer/AAE, CAEWRI NARC/Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) Islamabad
Col Islam-ul-Haque, Chairman, Ecological Sustainability through Environmental Services (Eco Steps), Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan has not only been blessed with enriched hydrological cycling phenomenon which generate abandoned quantum of water in the northern part , but also possess 18.68 MAF Water Potential in water scarce areas of Pakistan , known as Rod Kohi. Spate irrigation is in practice in Pakistan, where, flood water, during monsoon season, gets generated and channelized from down-hill countered profiles (catchments area). These hill torrential are diverted to agriculture fields, by constructing earthen embankments or related hydraulic concrete structures. Since, hill sides torrential are unpredictable, temporally and spatially matrix, which poses numerous challenges to the farmers who in return forcibly integrate / pool up individual resources to partially manage this scarce resource. Though the annual rainfall ( ....100...mm/year) in this area is low and uncertain yet at the same time due to terrain lay out , substantial quantum of water gets accumulated due to downhill side terrain profile each rainfall event. The agriculture activities, in these areas are totally dependent on such type of phenomenal rainfalls. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific water resource management and modern agriculture practices, major quantum of torrential flood water is not only gets wasted , but also causes huge losses to human life and property . This catastrophic situation arises, as there are neither successive layers of check-dams on the down-hill sides of these mountain ranges, nor any kind of water storage facilities exist at the foot hill areas. PARC (Pakistan Agricultural Research Council) and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Foundation ( PPAF) did funded some localized water storage , water conveyance and water distribution system interventions, but still there is a dire need of holistically adoption of watershed management approaches , based on resource integration concept and practices. This un-managed water resource must be harnessed / converted into lucrative opportunities to oxygenize the life line for millions of people residing in these areas.
Hill Torrents Potentials and Spate Irrigation Management to Support Agricultural Strategies in Pakistan, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 289-295.
Ahmed, S., 2000. Indigenous water harvesting systems in Pakistan. Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan.
Al-Shaybani, S.R., 2003. Overview of non-modernized spate irrigation systems in Yemen.
FAO. 1997. Modernization of irrigation schemes. In: Past Experiences and Future Options; Proceedings of the Expert Consultation, Bangkok, November 1996
FAO, 2005. Crop water management. FAO Land and Water Development Division.
GROUNDWATER CONSULT (1991).Baluchistan flood water irrigation systems. Islamabad: Royal Netherlands Embassy
Hamilton, R., Muhammad, A.K., 1995. Sailaba irrigation practices and practices. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation. University of Idaho, ID 83844-2334, USA.
Mehari, A., Schultz, B., Depeweg, H., 2005a. Hydraulic performance evaluation of the spate irrigation systems in Eritrea. Irrigation and Drainage 54.4: 1-18.
Mehari, A., Van Steenbergen, F., Schultz, B., 2005b. Water rights and rules and management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea, Yemen and Pakistan. In: African Water Laws: Plural Legislative Frameworks for Rural Water Management in Africa;
Proceedings of the International Water Management Institute Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 - 28 January, 2005 Mehari, A., Schultz, B., Depeweg, H., 2005c. Where indigenous water management practices overcome failures of structures. Irrigation and Drainage 54.1: 1-14.
Mumtaz, A (1989). Keynote Address, In: BARD Rod Kohi Agricultural Problems and Prospects Symposium, Nov. 27-29 1989, Islamabad, Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, 2-9.
Nawaz, K., 2003. Spate irrigation in Dera Khazi Khan, Pakistan [online]. Available at http://www spate irrigation.org
NESPAK. (1998). Master Feasibility Studies for Flood management of Hill Torrents of Pakistan. Supporting Vol-V, Balochistan,
Randall, J.S., Sharon, A., 2005. Soils: Genesis and geomorphology. Cambridge University Press, UK, ISBN: 0521812011, 832 pp.
Sithole, B., 2000. Telling it like it is: Devolution in the water reform process in Zimbabwe. In: Constituting the Common: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium; Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), Bloomington, Indiana, USA, 31 May - 4 June 2000.
Thomas, W.L., Robert, G.S., Richard, R.T., Howard, W.N., 2004. Soil water monitoring and measurement. A Pacific Northwest Publication, Washington State University, Oregon, Idaho [online]. Available at http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications
Van Der Zaag, P., 2006. Water’s vulnerable value in Africa. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 22, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands; University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; Delft University of Technology, Delft the Netherlands.
Van Steenbergen, F., 1997. Understanding the sociology of spate irrigation: Cases from Balochistan. Journal of Arid Environments 35: 349-36