Technical Efficiency of Vegetable Farmers in Peri-Urban Ghana Influence and Effects of Resource Inequalities
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 79-87
Received: Apr. 16, 2014;
Accepted: May 4, 2014;
Published: May 20, 2014
Views 2907 Downloads 174
Samuel Twumasi Amoah, Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University for Development Studies, WA, Ghana
Irene Akobour Debrah, Faculty of Education, University for Development Studies, WA, Ghana
Razak Abubakari, School of Business and Law, University for Development Studies, WA, Ghana
In Ghana, statistics indicate that women account for about 70% of total food production and are the most important actors in the food chain which begins from the farm production, market and intra household distribution of food. They play a lead role in post-harvest activities such as shelling of grains, storage, processing and marketing. They are also becoming increasingly visible in farm tasks which traditionally have been designated as male preserve. Despite the increasing central role of women in food production, they have much more limited access to resources than their male counterparts especially in the areas of education, land, agricultural extension services and access to credit, all of which combine to restrain their ability to increase productivity. This study was therefore undertaken toexamine the technical efficiency of male and female vegetable farmers in the Kumasi Metropolis using the stochastic production frontier model. Female vegetable farmers were found to be producing at high levels of inefficiency. The predicted efficiencies differed substantially from between 2 and 85 percent, with mean efficiency of 24 percent. The low mean efficiency index is an indication of inefficiencies in resource use. Also, female headed farms recorded a mean technical efficiency of 16.5 percent with a range between 2 and 66 percent. The male headed farms, on the other hand, showed a mean technical efficiency of 30.8 percent, and a range between 2 and 85 percent. The results imply that on the average, female vegetable farmers were relatively technically inefficient than their male counterparts. The paper concludes that since women farmers contribute immensely of domestic food supply in Ghana, it is important that efforts be made to build their capacity to produce efficiently.
Samuel Twumasi Amoah,
Irene Akobour Debrah,
Technical Efficiency of Vegetable Farmers in Peri-Urban Ghana Influence and Effects of Resource Inequalities, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 79-87.
Abdulai, A. and Eberlin E“Technical Efficiency During Economic Reform in Nicaragua: Evidence From Farm Household Survey Data”. Economic Systems,2001(25):113-125.
Abdulai, R. T, “Is land title registration the answer to insecure and uncertain property rights in sub-Saharan Africa?” RICS Research Paper Series, 2006, Volume 6(6), pp. 1–28
Abdulai, A., and Huff-man, W,“Structural Adjustment and Economic Efficiency of Vegetables Farmers in Northern Ghana. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2000(504-519).
Aigner, D., Lovell, C.A., Knox, and Schmidt, P,“Formulation and estimation of Stochastic Frontier Production Function Models”. Journal of econometrics, 1977(6) 21-37.
Akinwumi, A., and Djato, K. K,“Relative Efficiency of Women as Farm Managers: Profit Function Analysis in Cote d’Ivoire”: Agricultural Economics, 1997(16), 47-53.
Ali, M., and Byerlee, D,“Economic Efficiency of Small Farmers in a Changing World: A survey of recent evidence. Journal of International Development, 1991, l3 (1): 1-27.
Ayamba, I,“Backyard Crop Production in KMA”. In: Kumasi Natural Resources Management Research Project (KNRMP)-Kumasi Urban Natural Resources Studies. R67-99. 1999.
Bravo-Ureta B.E. and Reiger L,“Dairy Farm Efficiency Measurement Using Stochastic Frontiers and Neoclassical Duality”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1991, 73 (2): 421-428.
Bravo-Ureta, B. E. and Evenson, R. E,“Efficiency in Agricultural Production, the Case of Peasant Farmers in Eastern Paraguay”. Agricultural Economics, 1994(10) 27-37.
Chinwuba P. I. and Odjuvwuederhie E. I,“Determinants of Yam Production and Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Southern Nigeria”. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2006, 7(2): 337-342.
Coelli T. J and G. E .Battese,“Identification of Factors which Influence the Technical Efficiency of Indian Farmers”; Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1996, Vol. 40, pp103-128.
Dittoh, S,“The Economics of Dry Season Vegetable Production in Nigeria”. Acta Horticulture, 1992, No. 296, pp. 257-264.
Due, J.M. and Gladwin, C. H,“Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programme African Women Farmers and Fe-male-headed Households”. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73 (1991): 1431-1439.
FAO,Statistical Year Book, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome. 2005
FAO, Agricultural data FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 2006.
FAO, Country Statistics: Ghana. Last accessed in 2011. Availa-ble at http://countrystat.org/gha/cont/pages/page/indicators/en
Gladwin, C.H., McMil-lan, D,“Is a turnaround in Africa Possible Without Helping African women to Farm?” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1989(37) 345-369.
Hart, F.L. And Fisher, H.J,“Modern Food Analysis”. Springer, Berlin,Germany. 1971, pp:371-373
Heshmati, A. and Mulugeta, Y. Technical Efficiency of the Ugandan Matoke Farms, Applied Economic Letters, 1996(3): 491-494.
Kodde, D.A, and Palm A.C. Wald,“Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequa-lity Restrictions”. Ecometrica, 1986 (54): 1243-1248.
Komolafe, M.F., A.A. Adegbola, L.A. Are and T.I. Ashaye,Agric. Sci. West Africa Schools, Coll. Univ. Press Ltd. Ibadan, 1980 pp: 176-183.
Kraus, J,“The struggle over structural adjustment in Ghana”. Africa Today, 1991, 38(4): 19-37.
Kumbhakar, S. C. and Lovell, C. A. K,“Stochastic Frontier Analysis”. Cam-bridge University Press, Cambridge. 2000.
Minia, Z,“Climate Scenarios Developed for Climate Change Impact Assessment inGhana”, Report prepared for the Environmental Protection agency under the Netherland. Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme (NCCSAP) Phase 2, Part 1, Accra. 2004.
MoFA,“Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures”. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra. 2011.
Mochebelele, M.T. and Winter-Nelson, A“Migrant Labour and Farm Technical Efficiency in Lesotho”, World Development, 2000, 28 (1): 143-153.
Nekesa P, &Meso B,“Traditional African vegetables in Kenya: production, marketing and utilization” In: Traditional African Vegetables. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 16. Guarino L editor. Proceedings of the IPGRI International workshop on genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa: Conservation and Use, 29-31 August 1995, ICRAF-HQ, Nairobi, Kenya. Institute of Plant Genetic and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben In-ternational Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, 1997, pp.98-103.
Owens, T., Hoddinott, J. and Kinsey, B,“The Impact of Agricultural Extension on Farm Production in Reset-tlement Areas of Zimbabwe”. CSAE WPS/2001-6, Centre for the study African Economics, Uni-versity of Oxford. 2001.
Owusu-Sekyere et al.,“Gender, Resource Use and Technical Effi-ciency Among Rice Farmers In The Ashanti Region Ghana”. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 2013, Vol. 2(3), pp. 102-110,
Parikh, A., Ali, F., and Shah, M.K “Measure-ment of Economic Efficiencyin Pakistani Agriculture, American Journal Agricultural Economics, 1995, 77 (8): 675-685.
Quisumbing, A. R,“Male-Female Differences in Agricultural Prod-uctivity: Methodological Issues and Empirical Evidence”. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1996, (24): 1579-96.
Rahman S,“Profit Efficiency among Blanglandesh Vegetables Farmers”. Food Policy, 2003(2)8: 483-503.
Scammell, M.L. & Dearry, A,“Advancing the Community-Driven Research Agenda in N.Lo.E.H, Research Triangle Park”, North Carolina. 1997.
Scammell, K.M., Senier, L., Darrah-Okike, J., Brown, P. & Santos, S,“Tangible Evi-dence, Trust And Power: Public Perceptions Of Community Environmental Health Studies”. Social Science & Medicine, 2009, 68(1):143-153, 6 Nov
Seyoum, E. T., Battese, G.E. and Fleming, E. M,“Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Maize Producers in Eastern Ethiopia: A study of farmers within and outside the Sasakawa- Global 2000 Project. Agricultural Economics”, 1998, 19: 341-348
Udry, C. Gender, “Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household”. Journal of Political Economy, 1996, (104): 1010-1046.
Ulin, P. R., Robinson, E. T., & Tolley, E. E,“Qualitative methods in public health: A field guide for applied research”. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2005: Pp. 139-174.
Weir, S,“The effects of Education on Farmer Productivity in Rural Ethiopia”, Working Paper CSAE WPS99-7, Centre for the study of African Economics, Uni-versity of Oxford, 1999.
Weir, S. and Knight, J,“Education Externalities in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Average and Stochastic Frontier Production Functions”, Working Paper CSAE WPS99-7, Centre for the study of African Economics, University of Oxford. 2000.