Effects of Two Plant Arrangements in Corn (Zea Mays L.) And Soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill) Intercropping on Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus Status and Growth of Component Crops at an Argentinean Argiudoll
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2013, Pages: 22-31
Received: Jun. 4, 2013;
Published: Jul. 10, 2013
Views 3390 Downloads 337
Ciarlo Esteban Ariel, Chair of Edafology, Agronomy College of Buenos Aires University, Av. San Martín 4453 (CP: 1417), C.A.B.A., Argentina
Ostolaza Antonio Eduardo, Chair of Edafology, Agronomy College of Buenos Aires University, Av. San Martín 4453 (CP: 1417), C.A.B.A., Argentina
Giardina Ernesto Benito, Chair of Edafology, Agronomy College of Buenos Aires University, Av. San Martín 4453 (CP: 1417), C.A.B.A., Argentina
Giuffré Lidia, Chair of Edafology, Agronomy College of Buenos Aires University, Av. San Martín 4453 (CP: 1417), C.A.B.A., Argentina
Intercropping systems can provide many benefits through increased efficiency of land and light use. The objectives of this study were to assess the main effects on a soil and plant growth of two arrangements of corn - soybean intercropping. In a 1-year experiment at 2011, the following treatments were randomly assigned in a CRD to 16 plots located on a vertic Argiudoll from Argentina: sole corn (Zea mays L.), sole soybean (Glycine max L.), corn-soybean 1:1 intercropping and corn-soybean 1:2 intercropping. Nitrate levels were modified by treatments, but these treatments did not affect available P contents due to very high levels of this element during the whole cropping cycles. The practice of intercropping did not enhance water uptake by crops in relation to sole crops, as might be expected from complementary root systems and de-velopment timelines. Corn N status improved with intercropping probably due to an enhanced growth of plants and their roots, but soybean chlorophyll content was decreased by intercropping treatments. Yield and growth of corn were stimulated by intercropping systems, but this system depressed soybean growth, particularly at 1:1 corn-soybean ratio. Based on the re-markable dominance of corn crop observed at this arrangement, it can be concluded that a 1:2 corn-soybean ratio could be more beneficial in terms of more symmetric ecological interactions.
Ciarlo Esteban Ariel,
Ostolaza Antonio Eduardo,
Giardina Ernesto Benito,
Effects of Two Plant Arrangements in Corn (Zea Mays L.) And Soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill) Intercropping on Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus Status and Growth of Component Crops at an Argentinean Argiudoll, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2013, pp. 22-31.
G. Ae N, J.Arihara, K. Okada, T. Yoshihara and C. Johansen "Phosphorous uptake by pigeon pea and its role in cropping systems of the Indian subcontinent." Sci. 248, pp 477-480, 1990.
L. Anil, J. Park, R.H. Phipps and F.A. Miller "Temperate intercropping of cereal for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference to the UK." Grass For. Sci. 53, pp. 301-317, 1998.
L. Barton, C. Tang, and C.D.A.McLay "Acidification potential of ten grain legume species grown in nutrient solution". Austr. J. of Agric. Res. 48, pp. 1025-1032, 1997.
L. Bedoussac and E. Justes "The efficiency of a durum wheat-winter pea intercrop to improve yield and wheat grain protein concentration depends on N availability during early growth." Plant Soil 330, pp. 19-35, 2010.
L. Bedoussac and E. Justes "A comparison of commonly used indices for evaluating species interactions and Intercrop efﬁciency: Application to durum wheat–winter pea intercrops." Field Crops Res. 124, pp. 25-36, 2011.
R.H. Bray and L.T. Kurtz "Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorous in soil." Soil Sci. 134, pp. 376-380, 1945.
L. Coll, A. Cerrudo, R. Rizzalli, J.P. Monzon and F.H. Andrade "Capture and use of water and radiation in summer intercrops in the south-east Pampas of Argentina." Field Crops Res. 134, pp. 105-113, 2012.
T.E. Crew and M.B. Peoples "Legume versus fertilizer source of nitrogen: ecological tradeoffs and human needs." Agric. Ecosyst. Envir. 102, pp. 279-297, 2004.
F.D. Dakora and D. Phillips "Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments." Plant Soil 245, pp. 35-47, 2002.
M.G. Díaz, R. López, H. Peltzer, W.D. Kuttel and O.P. Caviglia. Intercultivo de Soja y Maíz para silajes de planta entera. Captura y uso de la radiación y producción de biomasa total al momento del ensilado. http://www.engormix.com/MA-agricultura/soja/articulos/intercultivo-soja-maiz-silaje-t4045/415-p0.htm. Accessed 13 july 2012.
M. Dubach and M.P. Russelle "Forage legume roots and nodules and their role in nitrogen transfer." Agron. J. 86: pp. 259-266, 1994.
L. Echarte, A. Della Maggiora, D. Cerrudo, V.H. Gonzalez, P. Abbate, A. Cerrudo, V.O. Sadras and P. Calviño "Yield response to plant density of maize and sunflower intercropped with soybean." Field Crop Res. 121, pp. 423-429, 2011.
J. Evans, A.M. Mcneill, M.J. Unkovich, N.A. Fettell NA and D.P. Heenan "Net nitrogen balances for cool-season grain legume crops and contributions to wheat nitrogen uptake: a review." Austr J Exper Agric 41, pp. 347-359, 2001.
W.R. Fehr and C. Caviness "Stages of Soybean Development." Special Report 80. Cooperative extension service. Agriculture and home economics experiment station. IOWA State University of Science and Technology. Ames, Iowa, 9p., 1977.
C. Francis "Biological efficiencies in multiple - cropping systems." Adv Agron 42, pp.1-42, 1989.
Y. Gao, A.W. Duan, Z.G. Liu and X.J. Shen. "Light environment characteristics in maize-soybean strip intercropping system." Institute of Farmland Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2008
Y. Gao, A.W. Duan, X. Qiu, J. Sun, J. Zhang, H. Liu and H. Wang. "Distribution and Use Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation in Strip Intercropping of Maize and Soybean." Agron J 102, pp. 1149-1157. 2010.
M. Ghaffarzadeh, F.G. Prechac and R.M. Cruse. "Grain yield response of corn, soybean, and oat grown in a strip intercropping system." Am J Alt Agric 9, pp. 171-177. 1994.
P.K. Ghosh et al. "Interspecific Interaction and Nutrient Use in Soybean/Sorghum Intercropping System." Agr J 98, pp. 1097-1108, 2006.
P.K. Ghosh, A.K. Tripathi, K.K. Bandyopadhyay and M.C. Manna "Assesment of nutrient competition and nutrient requirement in soybean/sorghum intercropping system." Eur J Agron 31, pp 43-50, 2009.
G.A. Gilbert, J.D. Knight, C.P. Vance and D.L. Allan "Acid phosphatase activity in phosphorus-deficient white lupin roots." Plant Cell and Environ. 22, pp. 801-810, 1999.
K.E. Giller and G. Cadisch. "Future benefits from biological nitrogen fixation: an ecological approach to agriculture." Plant Soil 174, pp. 255-277, 1995.
A. Gunes et al. "Mineral nutrition of wheat, chickpea and lentil as affected by mixed cropping and soil moisture." Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 78, pp. 83-96, 2007.
H. Hauggaard-Nielsen, P. Ambus and E.S. Jensen. "Interspecific competition, N use and interference with weeds in pea-barley intercropping." Field Crops Res 70; pp. 101-109, 2001.
H. Hauggaard-Nielsen, P. Ambus and E.S. Jensen "The comparison between nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley." Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 65, pp. 289-300, 2003.
H. Hauggaard-Nielsen and E.S. Jensen "Facilitative root interactions in intercrops." Plant Soil 274, pp. 237-250, 2005.
H. Hauggaard-Nielsen et al. "Pea–barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N2-fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems." Field Crops Res 113, pp. 64-71, 2009.
H. Hauggaard-Nielsen et al. "Pea–barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions." Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 85, pp. 141-155, 2009.
G. Hertenberger and W. Wanek. "Evaluation of methods to measure differential 15N labelling of soil and N root pools fo studies of root exudation." Rapid Comm in Mass Spectr 18, pp. 2415-2425, 2004.
C. Hiesbsch and R. Mc Collum. "Area x time equivalency ratio: A method for evaluating the productivity of inter-crops." Agr J 79, pp. 15-20, 1987.
B. Horwith "A role for intercropping in modern agriculture." Bio Sci 35, pp. 286-291, 1985.
J.D. Hummel et al. "Canola-Wheat intercrops for improved agronomic performance and integrated pest management." Agr J 101, pp. 1190-1197, 2009.
L. Li, C. Tang, Z. Rengel and F. Zhang. "Chickpea facilitates phosphorous uptake by intercropped wheat from an organic phosphorous source." Plant Soil 248, pp. 297-303, 2003.
L. Li, F. Zhang, X. Li, P. Christie, J.Sun, S. Yang and C. Tang. "Interspecific facilitation of nutrient uptake by intercropped maize and faba bean." Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 65, pp. 61-71, 2003.
S.M. Li, L. Li, F. Zhang and C. Tang. (2004) "Acid Phosphatase Role in Chickpea/Maize Intercropping." Annals of Bot 94, pp. 297-303, 2004.
L. Li et al. "Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, pp. 11192–11196, 2007.
M. Liebman and E. Dyck "Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management." Ecol Appl 3 vol. 1, pp. 92-122, 1993.
M. Liebman, C.L. Mohler and C.P. Staver "Ecological management of agricultural weeds." Cambridge University Press 532 p., 2001.
E.U. Mbah, C.O. Muoneke and D.A. Okpara "Effect of compound fertilizer on the yield and productivity of soybean and maize in soybean/maize intercrop in southeastern Nigeria." Trop and Subtrop Agroecosyst 7, pp. 87-95, 2007.
R. Mead and R.W. Willey. "The concept of a "land equivalent ratio" and advantages in yields from intercropping." Exp Agric 16, pp. 217-228, 1980.
N.K. Mohta and R. De "Intercropping maize and sorghum with soya beans." J of Agric Sci 95, pp.117-122, 1980.
M.L. Muofhe and F.D. Dakora "Modification of rhizosphere pH by the symbiotic legume Aspalathus linearis growing in a sandy acidic soil." Austr J of Plant Physiol 27, pp. 1169-1173, 2000.
C.O. Muoneke, M.A.O. Ogwuche and B.A. Kalu "Effect of maize planting density on the performance of maize/soybean intercropping system in a guinea savanna agroecosystem." Afr J of Agric Res 2 vol.12, pp. 667-677, 2007.
A. Neumann, K. Schmidtkeand R. Rauber. "Effects of crop density and tillage system on grain yield and N uptake from soil and atmosphere of sole and intercropped pea and oat." Field Crops Res 100, pp. 285-293, 2007.
F. Ofori and W.R. Stern. 1987. "Cereal - legume intercropping systems." Adv Agron 41, pp. 41-90, 1987.
E. Pelzer et al. "Pea–wheat intercrops in low-input conditions combine high economic performances and low environmental impacts." Eur J Agron 40, pp. 39-53, 2012.
M.R. Rao and M.N. Mathuva "Legumes for improving maize yields and income in semi-arid Kenya." Agric Ecosyst Environ 78, pp. 123-137, 2000.
L. Ren et al. "Intercropping with aerobic rice suppresed Fusarium wilt in watermelon." Soil Biol Biochem 40, pp. 834-844, 2008.
S. Ritchie and J.J. Hanway "How a corn plant develops." Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology. Coop. Ext. Service. 48 p. 1982.
C.R. Sawicki and F.P. Scaringelli. "Colorimetric determination of nitrate after hydrazine reduction to nitrate." Microchem J 16 vol. 4, pp. 657-672, 1971.
SAS Institute Inc. "SAS/STAT Guide for personal computers" Version 8. edition Cary NC: SAS Institute Inc. 1999.
J.E. Sawyer, P. Pedersen, D.W. Barkera, D.A. Ruiz Diaz, K. Albrecht "Intercropping Corn and Kura Clover: Response to Nitrogen Fertilization" Agron J 102, pp. 568-574, 2010.
S.S. Shapiro and M.B. Wilk. "An analysis of variance test for normality." Biometrika 52 vol. 3, pp. 591-569, 1965.
Y.N. Song et al. "Effect of intercropping on crop yield and chemical and microbiological properties in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivium L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.)." Biol Fertil Soils 43, pp. 565-574, 2007.
C. Tang, C.D.A. McLay and L. Barton. "A comparison of proton excretion of twelve pastures legumes grown in nutrient solution." Austr J of Exp Agric 37, pp. 563-570, 1997.
C. Tang, P. Hinsinger , J.J. Drevon, B. Jaillard. "Phosphorus deficiency impairs early nodule functioning and enhances proton release in roots of Medicago truncatula L" Annals of Bot. 88, pp. 131-138, 2001.
G.W. Thomas. "Soil pH , Soil Acidity." In: Sparks D.L. (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. Pp:475-490, 1996.
J. Vandermeer "The Ecology of intercropping." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 254 pp. 1989.
C. Van Kessel, P.W. Singleton and H.J. Hoben "Enhanced N-transfer from a soybean to maize by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi." Plant Physiol 79, pp. 562–663, 1985.
A. Walkley and I.A. Black "An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method." Soil Sci 37, pp. 29–38, 1934.
J.M. Watiki, S. Fukai, J.A. Banda and B.A. Keating "Radiation interception and growth of maize/cowpea intercrop as affected by maize plant density and cowpea cultivar." Field Crops Res 35, pp. 123- 133, 1993.
T.D. West and D.R. Griffith. "Effect of strip intercropping corn and soybean on yield and profit." J of Prod Agric 5, pp. 107-110, 1992.
R.W. Willey. "Intercropping-its importance and research needs. Part 1. Competition and yield advantages." Field Crop Abstr. 32, pp. 1-10, 1979.
R.W. Willey and M.R. Rao. "A competitive ratio for quantifying competition between intercrops." Exp Agric 16, pp. 117-125, 1980.
R.W. Willey. "Resource use in intercropping systems" Agric Water Manag 17, pp. 215-231, 1990.
F. Zhang, L. Li "Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency." Plant Soil 248, pp. 305-312, 2003.
N. Zhang et al. "Effects of intercropping and Rhizobium inoculation on yield and rhizosphere bacterial community of faba bean (Vicia faba L)" Biol Fertil Soils 46, pp. 625-639, 2010.
Y. Zheng, F. Zhang and L. Li. "Iron availability as affected by soil moisture in intercropped peanut and maize" J Plant Nutr 26, pp. 2425-2437, 2003.