Microbial Analysis of Processed Foods Stored in Domestic Refrigerators of Selected Eateries in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2018, Pages: 21-26
Received: Oct. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Nov. 19, 2018;
Published: Dec. 28, 2018
Views 811 Downloads 128
Odewade Joseph Oluwaseun, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University, Dutsin-Ma, Nigeria
Oyelami Lydia Oluwatosin, Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Fasogbon Albert Oluwasoga, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Consumption of contaminated refrigerated foods is increasing the incidence of food-borne diseases globally. However, there is paucity of data on prevalence of microbes associated with these foods from Osun State, Nigeria, thus, the need for isolation and characterization of microbes associated with refrigerated foods from this region. A total of 80 processed food samples were collected aseptically and refrigerated for four days. Samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria and fungi while antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates were determined using standard methods. Mean bacterial count ranged from 7.0 x104 to 3.7 x105 cfu/ml with highest bacterial count of 3.7 x 105 cfu/ml obtained from melon soup sample, while least count of 7x104 cfu/ml was obtained from cooked meat. Fungal count ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.6 x103 sfu/ml with cooked beans having the highest count of 5.6 x 103 sfu/ml. The bacteria that were isolated from refrigerated processed food samples include Corynebacterium kutscheri (47.05%), Bacillus spp (14.70%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.76%), Lactobacillus fermenti (5.8%), Aeromonas hydrophila (5.8%), Pseudomonas spp (5.88%), Lactobacillus casei (2.94%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (2.94%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.94%), while fungi isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (24.56%), Aspergillus niger (21.05%), Aspergillus flavus (14.04%), Aspergillus brevipes (14.04%), Mucor spp (7.02%), Penicillium spp (8.77%) and Saccharomyces spp (10.53%). Corynebacterium kutscheri had the highest resistance of 17(37%) while Lactobacillus casei showed no resistance (0%) to the antibiotics used. This study showed high bacterial and fungal counts from the analyzed samples, hence, the need to ensure hygienic food processing and refrigerating conditions.
Odewade Joseph Oluwaseun,
Oyelami Lydia Oluwatosin,
Fasogbon Albert Oluwasoga,
Microbial Analysis of Processed Foods Stored in Domestic Refrigerators of Selected Eateries in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2018, pp. 21-26.
Kosa, K. M., Cates, C. S., Karnes, S., Godwin, S. L., and Chambers, D. (2007). Consumer home refrigeration practices: Results of a web-based survey. Journal of Food Protection, 70: 1640-1649.
Kra¨mer, J. (2002). Lebensmittel mikrobiologie. 4. Auﬂage. Stuttgart: Eugen Ulmer Verlag.
Kreyenschmidt, J. (2003). Modellierung des Frischeverlustes vonFleischso wiedes Entfa¨rbungsprozessesvonTemperatur-ZeitIntegratorenzur. Festlegung. Anforderungsroﬁlnfu¨rdieproduktbegleitendeTemperaturuberwachung. Bergen.
Talaro, K. P., and Chess, B. (2012). Foundations in Microbiology. 8th edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, pp. 816-818.
Mitchell, D., Finkelhor, W., and Rickert, G. (2004). Refrigeration and food safety, In: How to store vegetables you’ve grown, pp. 345-404.
Arora, R. C. (2003). Mechanical Vapour Compression Refrigeration. In: Refrigeration and air conditioning. New Delhi, India, pp. 1096.
Prescott, L. M., Harley, P. J., and Klein, A. D. (2005). Microbiology. 6th edition, McGraw Hill Publishers, New York.
Bielecki, J. (2003). Emerging food pathogens and bacterial toxins. Acta Microbiologica Polonica, 52: 17– 22.
Ojima, M., Toshima, Y., Koya, E., Ara, k., Tokuda, H., Kawai, S., Kasuga, F., and Ueda, N. (2002). Hygiene measures considering actual distributions of microorganisms in Japanese households. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93: 800–809.
Kennedy, J., Jackson, V., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A. C., and Bolten, D. J. (2005). Food Safety knowledge of consumers and the microbial and temperature status of their refrigerators. Journal of Food Protection. 68: 1421–1430.
Pal, A., Labuza, T. P., and Diez-Gonzalez, F. (2008). Shelf life evaluation for ready to eat slice uncured turkey breast and cured ham under probable storage conditions based on Listeria monocytogenes and psychrotroph growth. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 126: 49– 56.
APHA (American Public Health Association). (2001). Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA.
Alexopoulos, C. J., Mims, W. C., and Blackwell, M. (1996). Introductory Mycology, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
James, G. C., and Natalie, S. (2011). Microbiology: A laboratory manual, 9th edition, San Francisco: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, pp. 211-223.
Watanabe, T. (2002). Pictorial atlas for identification of soil and seed fungi. Morphologies of cultured fungi and key to species. 2nd edition, CRC press. Boca Raton, London.
Oluwafemi, F., Akpoguma, S., Oladiran, T., and Kolapo, A. (2015). Microbiological Quality of Household Refrigerators in Three Cities South-West of Nigeria. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 7: 206-209. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000206.
Ugur, M., Nazli, B., and Bostan, K. (2001). Food Hygiene. Tecknik publishing, Istanbul, Turkey.
Dedesko, S., and Siegel, J. A. (2015). Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings. Microbiome, 3: 71.
Altunatmaz, S. S., Issa, G., and Aydin, A. (2012). Detection of airborne Psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 1436-1443.
Jay, J. M. (2000). Food Preservation and Some properties of Psychrotrophs, Thermophiles, and Radiation-Resistant Bacteria: In Modern Food Microbiology, 6th edition, Aspen Publishers Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland. pp. 251-367.
Bharathirajam, R., Gopinathan, R., and Prakash, M. (2012). Microbial management of household cold storage exploratory study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 1(1): 50-55.
Kampmann, Y., DE Clerk, E., Kohn, S., Patchala, D. K., Langerock, R., and Kreyenschmidt, J. (2008). Study on the antimicrobial effect of silver- containing inner liners in refrigerators. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104: 1808- 1814.
Osborne, J. W., Rish, B. A., and Kumar Rohini, M. (2012). Isolation of various bacterial pathogens from domestic refrigerators. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(3): 0974-2441.
Esfarjani, F., Khaksar, R., Nasrabadi, F. M., Roustaee, R., Alikharian, H., Khalaji, N., Khaneghah, A. M. and Hosseini, H. (2016). “A preventive approach to promote food safety: Bacterial contamination of domestic refrigerators’’. Food Journal, 118(8): 2076-2091. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2016-0025.
Otu-Bassey, I., Ewaoche, I. S., Okon, B. F., and Ibor, U. A. (2017). Microbial Contamination of Household Refrigerators in Calabar Metropolis-Nigeria. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious disease. 5(1): 1-7. doi:10.12691/ajeid-5-1-1.
Arbuthnott, J. P. (1990). Staphylococcal toxins in human disease. Journal of Applied Bacteriology (Supplement), 19: 101–107.
Flynn, O. M. J., Blair, I., and McDowell, D. (2006). The efficiency and consumer operation of domestic refrigerators. International Journal of Refrigeration, 15: 307- 312.
Doyle, E. M. (2007). FRI BRIEFINGS: Microbial Food Spoilage: Losses and Control Strategies. A Brief Review of the Literature. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Rawat, S. (2015). Food spoilage: Microorganisms and their prevention. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 5(4): 47: 56.
Spiers, J. P., Anderton, A., and Anderson, J. G. (1995.) A study of the microbial content of the domestic kitchen. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 5: 109-122.
Pitt, J. I. and Hocking, A. D. (2009). Fungi and Food Spoilage. 3rd edition, Heidelberg, Springer.
Lowy, F. D. (2003). Antimicrobial resistance: The example of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(9): 1265-1273.
Olender, A. (2012). Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance in Corynebacterium spp causing Infections in People, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria-A Continuous Challenge in the Millennium, Dr Marina Pana (Ed.). ISBN: 978-51-0472-8.
Mangel, A. R., Johnson, J. R., Foxman, F., O’ Bryan, T. T., Fullerton, K. E. and Riley, W. L. (2001). Widespread distribution of urinary tract infections caused by a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clonal group. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345: 1007- 1013.