Please enter verification code
Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Motor Vehicle Brake Pad Using Periwinkle Shell and Treated Cow Bone as Filler
Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 37-42
Received: Jun. 3, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 9, 2019; Published: Jul. 30, 2019
Views 849      Downloads 159
Ejiogu Ibe Kevin, Directorate of Research and Development, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria
Ayejagbara Mosunmade Olukemi, Department of Polymer Technology, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samara, Zaria, Nigeria
Ibeneme Uche, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria; Department of Polymer Technology, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samara, Zaria, Nigeria
Anigbogu Maryann Uzochukwu, Department of Polymer Technology, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Samara, Zaria, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Brake pad was produced using periwinkle shell and treated cow borne as base materials, phenolic resin as binder, material, aluminum oxide, copper oxide and zinc oxide as abrasive, and graphite as friction modifier. The particulate size of the filler materials considered was 250µm, Five samples were produced (Samples A, B, C, D and E) witht composition ratios of 60/25, 55/30, 40/35, 45/40 and 40/45 cow bone/periwinkle shell hybrid filler respectively. The produced brake pad samples were evaluated by testing the mechanical, thermal and physical properties. The hardness test showed that as the filler loading increases, there was a steady increase in hardness strength of the material and sample E showed (100.0) most closest hardness value to the required standard (101.0 Shore). The abrasion resistance showed a decrease with increasing filler loading, which could be due to poor interfacial adhesion between binder (PR) and other components due to poor distribution ratio of the filler quantity in the matrix (binder). The impact strength test result revealed that the higher the filler loading, the lower the average impact strength and samples A, B and C met the required standard brake pad impact strength; except for samples D and E, which could be due to the decrease in the quantity of binder (PR). The water absorption test result showed progressive increase in water absorption with increasing filler loading. Samples A and B with water absorption of 5.56% and 6.25% respectively were found to fall wthin the range of the required standard of 4.5%. The coefficient of friction test result showed a steady decrease as the filler loading increased, however, sample E with 0.36µ exhibited a coefficient of friction within the required standard range for automobile vehicles with a coefficient of fiction range of 0.35 – 0.42 µ. The Therrmo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) test result for sample A was chosen because it proved to give superior performance over others. Sample A showed a percent weight loss as the temperature increased from 299.00°C to 88714°C. Sample A showed thermal stability at 299°C with degradation setting in at 470.07°C and with a percent weight loss of 24.715%.
Phenolic Resisn, Cow Bone, Periwinkle Shell, Thermo-Mechanical Properties
To cite this article
Ejiogu Ibe Kevin, Ayejagbara Mosunmade Olukemi, Ibeneme Uche, Anigbogu Maryann Uzochukwu, Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Motor Vehicle Brake Pad Using Periwinkle Shell and Treated Cow Bone as Filler, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 37-42. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bhane, A. B., Kharde, R. R., Honrao, V. P. (2014). “Investigation of tribological properties for brake pad material.” A review, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 4(9), pp. 530-532.
Dan-Asabe, Bashar, Peter, Madakson B., Jospeh, Many: (2012 “Material Selection and Production of a Cold-worked Composite Brake Pad.” World Journal of Engineering, Pure and Applied Science [WJEPAS] vol. 2(3) pp. 92-97.
Basha J. K, Taylor, and husband, DA.(2005): 'friction pads for use in Disc brakes, US pat5725077 (United State Patent and Trademark office).
Idris, U. D. Aigbodion, V. S. Abubakar, I. J. and Nwoye, C. I. (2003). “Eco-friendly asbestos free brake pad: using banana peels’’, BasadePublishing Press Ondo, Nigeria, vol. 4, no. 1.5-8.
Ikpambese K. K., Gundu D. T., Tuleun L. T., Evaluation of palm kernel fibres for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads. Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, 2016, 28(1), p. 110-118.
Kehinde, N. Awokoya, Rasheed, O. Sanusi, Vincent O. Oninla and Olumuyiwa, M. Ayibade (2017).“Activated Periwinkle Shells for the binding and recognition of heavy metal ions from aqueous media. International Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vol. 13(4).
Keskin, A. (2011). “Investigation of using natural zeolite in brake pad.” Scientific Research and Essays. Vol. 6(23), Pp. 4893-4904.
Kim, S.. J., Kim, K.. S., and Jang, H. (2003). Optimization of Manufacturing Parameters for Brake lining Using Taguchi Method. Journal of Material Processing Technology, 136.202-208.
Mayowa A., Abubakre O. K., Lawa S. A., Raji A., Experimental Investigation of palm kernel shell and cow bone reinforced polymer composite for brake pad production, International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 2015. 3(2), p. 27-40.
Nigerian Industrial Standard. (1997). Specification for friction Materials for Road Vehicles Brake Lining and Brake Pads, NIS 323:1997, Standard Organization of Nigeria.
Onyeneke, F. N., Anaele, J. U., and Ugwuegbu, C. C. (2014). Production of Motor vehicle brake pad using local materials (periwinkle and coconut shell). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES), Vol. 3, ISSN 2319-1813.
Ebewele R. O. (2001). Textbook of Polymer Science and Technology, 2nd Edition, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City.
Frackowiak, S., Ludwiczak, J., and Leluk, K. (2018). Man-Made and Natural Fibres as a Reinforcement in Fully Biodegradable Polymer Composites: A Concise Study. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 26(12), 4360–4368.
Jawad, M., Schoop, R., Suter, A., Klein, P., and Eccles, R. (2013). Perfil de eficacia y seguridad de Echinacea purpurea en la prevención de episodios de resfriado común: Estudio clínico aleatorizado, doble ciego y controlado con placebo. Revista de Fitoterapia, 13(2), 125–135.
Mohareb, A. S. O., Hassanin, A. H., Candelier, K., Thévenon, M. F., and Candan, Z. (2017). Developing Biocomposites Panels from Food Packaging and Textiles Wastes: Physical and Biological Performance. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 25(2), 126–135.
Nourbakhsh, A., Ashori, A., Ziaei Tabari, H., and Rezaei, F. (2010). Mechanical and thermo-chemical properties of wood-flour/polypropylene blends. Polymer Bulletin, 65(7), 691–700.
Väisänen, T., Haapala, A., Lappalainen, R., and Tomppo, L. (2016). Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review. Waste Management, 54, 62–73.
Višnjić, D., Lalić, H., Dembitz, V., and Banfić, H. (2014). Metabolism and differentiation. Periodicum Biologorum, 116(1), 37–43.
Kwon, H., Ayrilmis, N., and Han, T. H. (2014). “Combined effect of thermoplastic and thermosetting adhesives on properties of particleboard with rice husk core,” Materials Research, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1309–1315.
Panthapulakkal, S., Sain, M., and Law, S. (2005a). “Effect of coupling agents on rice-husk-filled HDPE extruded profiles,” Polymer International, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 137–142.
Panthapulakkal, S., Sain, M., and Law, S. (2005b). “Enhancement of processability of rice husk filled high-density polyethylene composite profiles,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 445–458.
Premalal, H. G. B., Ismail, H., and Baharin, A. (2002). Comparison of the mechanical properties of rice husk powder filled polypropylene composites with talc filled polypropylene composites. Polymer Testing, 21(7): 833–839.
. Shi, J., Zhang, J., and Pittman, C., U. (2008). Preliminary study of the stiffness enhancement of wood-plastic composites using carbon nano fibers. Holz als Roh - und Werkstoff, 66(5): 313–322.
Ashori, A., and Nourbakhsh, A (2009).. Effects of nanoclay as a reinforcement filler on the physical and mechanical properties of wood based composite. Composite Materials, 43(18): 1869–1875.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186