Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 6, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages: 34-41
Received: Jan. 14, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 18, 2019;
Published: Apr. 9, 2019
Views 815 Downloads 146
Salah Hassan Mohamed, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
Massoudah Omar Abulqasem Khalifa, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Sebha University, Sebha, Libya
Nazar Nasreldeen Babiker, Department of Soil and Water Science, Faculty of Agricultural sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, sudan
Physiological and symbiotic characteristics of 17 indigenous rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of wild legumes, (Trigonella stellate L. and Medicago polymorpha L.) that growing in different locations of Libya (northeast and northwest) and their cross-nodulation with cultivated Medicago sativa were studied. The results showed that the isolates were effective in their symbiosis with cultivated Medicago sativa L. A numerical taxonomic analysis performed on 56 non-symbiotic characteristics showed that at similarity level of 87%, the isolates formed four distinguished groups and three isolates remained separate. The results showed high variability among the isolates in their tolerance to various temperatures, and the majority of rhizobia isolates were sensitive to high acidity and are not able to grow at pH of 4.5. The tested isolates demonstrated a wide diversity in their tolerance to salinity, from sensitive unable to grow at 1% (w/v) to resistant to high salinity on a medium containing 4% (w/v) of NaCl. All isolates forming the four groups, including reference strains, were sensitive to CuCl2.2H2O, but they grew in medium containing HgCl2. The isolates forming the four groups varied in their resistance to salts. The rhizobial isolates revealed a great diversity in their ability to react with antibiotic from sensitive to resistant.
Salah Hassan Mohamed,
Massoudah Omar Abulqasem Khalifa,
Nazar Nasreldeen Babiker,
Physiological and Symbiotic Characteristics of Rhizobia Isolated from Medicago Polymorpha L and Trigonella Stellate L Growing in semi-arid Regions of Libya, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
2018, pp. 34-41.
Zahran HH (1999) Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63: 968–989.
Zahran, H. H., Abdel-Fattah, M., Ahmad, M. S., Zaki, A. Y. (2003). Polyphasic taxonomy of symbiotic rhizobia from wild leguminous plants growing in Egypt. Folia Microbiologica, 48: 510-520.
Al-Sherif, E. A., H. H. Zahran, A. M. Atteya, 2005. Nitrogen fixation and chemical composition of wild annual legumes at Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 6: 32-38.
El Hilali, I., Brhada, F., Thami Alami, I. and Filali- Maltouf, A. (2007). Evidence of the presence of genetically different rhizobial strains in a single cluster of a lupinoid nodule, the case of Lupinus luteus. J Agric Enviro 5 (1), 352- 359.
Mahdhi, M., Nzoué, A. de Lajudie, P. and Mars, M. (2008). Characterization of root- nodulation bacteria on Retama raetam in arid Tunisian soils Nat Sci 18, 43- 49.
Farida, B., Géraldine, D., Abdelghani, B., Djllali, B., Said, B., and Giséle, L. (2009). Retma species growing in different ecological-climatic areas of a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 32: 245-55.
Khalifa, M. O. A., Babiker, N. N., Mohamed, S . H. (2014) . Physiological characteristics of rhizobia isolated from Retama raetam (Forsk) and Lupinus various (L.) indigenous to Libyan desert. J. Environ. Sci and Eng B (3) 1045-1053.
Wang, E. T., Van Berkum, P. and Beyene, D. (1998). Rhizobium huaulens, sp. nov., a symbiont of Sesbania herbacea which has a close phylogenetic relationship with Rhizobium galegae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 687- 699.
Jha, P. K., Nair, Gopinathan, S. and Babu, C. R. (1995). Sustability of rhizobia inoculated legumes Argyrolobium flaccidium, Astragalus graveolens, Indigofera gangetica and Lespedeza stenocarpa in providing a vegetational cover in an unreclaimed limston equary. Plant and Soil 177.
Garau G, Reeve W. G, Brau L, Deiana P, Yates R. J, James D, Tiwari R, O'Hara G. W, Howieson J. G. (2005) The symbiotic requirements of different Medicago spp. suggest the evolution of Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae with hosts differentially adapted to soil pH. Plant and Soil.; 276: 263–277.
Merabet, C.; Bekki A.; Benrabah N.,. Bey M., Bouchentouf L., Ameziane H., Rezki M., Domergue A. , Cleyet- Marel O., Avarre J.-C., Béna G., Bailly X. and de Lajudie P. (2006). Distribution of Medicago species and their microsymbionts in a saline region of Algeria. Arid land Res. Management 20 (3), 219-231.
Elboutahiri N., Thami-Alami I. and Udupa S. M., (2010). Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco. In: BMC Microbiology, 10, p. 15.
Kaplan, D., Maymon, M., Agapakis, C. M., Lee, A., Wang, A., Prigge, B., Volkogon, M. and Hirsch, A. ( 2013). A survey of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of two dominant shrubs of the Negev Desert highlands, Zygophyllum dumosum (Zygophyllaceae) and Atriplex halimus (Amaranthaceae), using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods, American Journal of Botany 100(9): 1713–1725.
Demezas D H, Reardon T B, Watson J M and Gibson A H. 1991) Genetic diversity among Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii strains revealed by alloenzyme and restriction fragmentlength polymorphism analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 3489–3495.
Paffetti, D., Daguin, F., Fancelli, S., Gnocchi, S., Lippi, F., Scotti, C. and Bazzicalupo, M. (1998) Influence of plant genotype on the selection of nodulating Sinorhizobium meliloti strains by Medicago sativa . Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 73, 3–8.
Carelli M, Gnocchi S, Fancelli S, Mengoni A, Paffetti D, Scotti C, Bazzicalupo M (2000) Genetic diversity and dynamics of Sinorhizobium meliloti populations nodulating different Alfalfa cultivars in Italian soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 4785–4789.
Palmer KM, Young JPW (2000) Higher diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae populations in Arable soils than in Grass soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 2445–2450.
Andronov EE, Roumyantseva ML, Simarov BV (2001) Genetic diversity of a natural population of Sinorhizobium meliloti revealed in analysis of cryptic plasmids and ISRm2011-2 fingerprints. Russ J Genet 37: 494–499.
Bromfield ESP, Butler G, Barran LR (2001) Temporal effects on the composition of a population of Sinorhizobium meliloti associated with Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba. Can J Microbiol 47: 567–573.
Zhang X, Kosier B, Priefer UB (2001) Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa. Mol Ecol 10: 2297–2305.
Laguerre G, Louvrier P, Allard MR, Amarger N (2003) Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 2276–2283.
Vincent, J. M. (1970). A manual for the Practical Study of Root- nodule Bacteria. In: International Biological Program, Handbook no.15. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publication Ltd, pp. 73- 97.
Lindström, K. and Lehtomäki, S. (1988). Metabolic properties, maximum growth temperature and phage sensitivity of Rhizobium sp. (Galegae) compared with other fast- growing rhizobia. FEMS Microbiol lett 50, 277- 287.
Mpepereki, S., Kakonese, F. and Wollum, A. G. (1997). Physiological Characterization of indigenous rhizobia nodulating Vigna unguiculata in Zimbabwean soils. Symbiosis 22, 275-292.
Mohamed, S. H., Smouni, A., Neyra, M., Kharchaf, D. and Filali Maltouf, A. (2000). Phenotypic characteristics of root- nodulating bacteria isolated from Acacia spp. growing in Libya. Plant and Soil 224, 171- 183.
Zhang, X., Harper, R., Karsisto, M., and Lindström, K. (1991). “Diversity of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from the root nodules of leguminous trees.” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 53: 104-113.
Jordan, D. C. (1994). Family III. Rhizobaceae Conn. (1938). In Bergy̕ s manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 1. Edited by N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md. pp. 234-244.
Rome, S., Fernandez, M. P., Brunnel, B., Normand, P. and Cleyet-Marel, J. C. (1996). Sinorhizobium medicae, sp. nov., isolated from annual Medicago spp. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 927- 980.
Schlinkert- Miller, M. and Pepper, I. L. (1988). Physiological and biochemical characteristics of a fast- growing strain of Lupin rhizobia isolated from the Sonoran Desert. Soil Biol Biochem 20, 319- 322.
Jida, M.; Assefa, F. (2011) Phenotypic and plant growth promoting characteristics of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae from lentil growing areas of Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5, 4133–4142.
Negash, D., Tulu, D., Alazar, E . and Chris, O . (2018). Phenotypic characteristics of rhizobial and non-rhizobial isolates recovered from root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res, 12, 73-85.
Tulu , D., Endalkachew , W ., Makka , A., Asnake , F., Tilahun , A., and Chris , O. (2018) Morphophysiological diversity of rhizobia nodulating pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) growing in Ethiopia. Afr. J. Biotechnol . Res, 17, 167-177.
Maâtallah J, Berraho EB, Sanjuan J, Lluch C (2002). Phenotypic characterization of rhizobia isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) growing in Moroccan soils. Agronomie 22: 321-329.