Maximization of Astaxanthin Production from Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Using Internally-Illuminated Photobioreactor
Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 10-22
Received: May 31, 2018; Accepted: Jun. 8, 2018; Published: Jul. 5, 2018
Views 1222      Downloads 235
Authors
Yiu Hang Ho, School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Ho Man Leung, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR, China
Shuk Ying Yuen, School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Kei Shing Ng, School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Tak Sing Li, Institute for Research in Innovative Technology & Sustainability (IRITS), the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China; Centre for Excellence in Water Quality and Algal Research, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China; School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Lap Ming Yuen, School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Yee Keung Wong, Institute for Research in Innovative Technology & Sustainability (IRITS), the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China; Centre for Excellence in Water Quality and Algal Research, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China; School of Science and Technology, the Open University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
An internally-illuminated photobioreactor was designed to maximize the astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. Four optimization steps were conducted: 1. light wavelength 2. light intensity 3. astaxanthin formation and 4. astaxanthin extraction methods. Efficient biomass production of H. pluvialis of 4.58 ± 0.15 × 105 cells/ml and dry biomass of 520 ± 12.5 mg/L was accomplished under red LED light (660 nm) with 70 μmol m-2 s-1. Besides, the biomass production can be optimized to 5.31 ± 0.15 × 105 cells/ml and dry biomass of 680 ± 10.5 mg/L under 140 μmol m-2 s-1 in the light intensity of 70-210 μmol m-2 s-1. Furthermore, the astaxanthin accumulation was significant with 7 days encystment under 140 μmol m-2 s-1 blue LED lights. For extraction method, using hydrochloric acid could obtain the highest astaxanthin yield of 3.85 ± 0.05% (% to dry weight). Further studies were proposed whatever such photobioreactor can be applied to different microalgal strains.
Keywords
Astaxanthin, Haematococcus Pluvialis, Internally-Illuminated Photobioreactor, Lighting, Cell Disruption, Extractability
To cite this article
Yiu Hang Ho, Ho Man Leung, Shuk Ying Yuen, Kei Shing Ng, Tak Sing Li, Lap Ming Yuen, Yee Keung Wong, Maximization of Astaxanthin Production from Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Using Internally-Illuminated Photobioreactor, Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 10-22. doi: 10.11648/j.abb.20180602.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Boussiba, S. (2000). Carotenogenesis in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: cellular physiology and stress response. Physiologia Plantarum, 108 (2), 111-117.
[2]
Han, D., Li, Y., & Hu, Q. (2013). Astaxanthin in microalgae: pathways, functions and biotechnological implications. Algae, 28 (2), 131-147.
[3]
Hu, J., Nagarajan, D., Zhang, Q., Chang, J. S., & Lee, D. J. (2017). Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review. Biotechnology advances.
[4]
Lemoine, Y., & Schoefs, B. (2010). Secondary ketocarotenoid astaxanthin biosynthesis in algae: a multifunctional response to stress. Photosynthesis research, 106 (1-2), 155-177.
[5]
Shah, M. M. R., Liang, Y., Cheng, J. J., & Daroch, M. (2016). Astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: from single cell to high value commercial products. Frontiers in plant science, 7.
[6]
Hancock, J. T., Desikan, R., & Neill, S. J. (2001). Role of reactive oxygen species in cell signalling pathways.
[7]
Li, Y., Sommerfeld, M., Chen, F., & Hu, Q. (2008). Consumption of oxygen by astaxanthin biosynthesis: a protective mechanism against oxidative stress in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of plant physiology, 165 (17), 1783-1797.
[8]
Lorenz, R. T., & Cysewski, G. R. (2000). Commercial potential for Haematococcus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin. Trends in biotechnology, 18 (4), 160-167.
[9]
Mittler, R. (2002). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in plant science, 7 (9), 405-410.
[10]
Polle, A. (2001). Dissecting the superoxide dismutase-ascorbate-glutathione-pathway in chloroplasts by metabolic modeling. Computer simulations as a step towards flux analysis. Plant Physiology, 126 (1), 445-462.
[11]
Dose, J., Matsugo, S., Yokokawa, H., Koshida, Y., Okazaki, S., Seidel, U., Eggersdorfer, M., Rimbach, G. & Esatbeyoglu, T. (2016). Free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant properties of astaxanthin. International journal of molecular sciences, 17 (1), 103.
[12]
Fassett, R. G., & Coombes, J. S. (2009). Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future cardiology, 5 (4), 333-342.
[13]
Nasri, H., Baradaran, A., Shirzad, H., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). New concepts in nutraceuticals as alternative for pharmaceuticals. International journal of preventive medicine, 5 (12), 1487.
[14]
Baker, R. T. M., Pfeiffer, A. M., Schöner, F. J., & Smith-Lemmon, L. (2002). Pigmenting efficacy of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in fresh-water reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 99 (1-4), 97-106.
[15]
Řehulka, J. (2000). Influence of astaxanthin on growth rate, condition, and some blood indices of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 190 (1-2), 27-47.
[16]
Guerin, M., Huntley, M. E., & Olaizola, M. (2003). Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. TRENDS in Biotechnology, 21 (5), 210-216.
[17]
Rahman, M. M., Khosravi, S., Chang, K. H., & Lee, S. M. (2016). Effects of dietary inclusion of astaxanthin on growth, muscle pigmentation and antioxidant capacity of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Preventive nutrition and food science, 21 (3), 281.
[18]
Song, X., Wang, L., Li, X., Chen, Z., Liang, G., & Leng, X. (2017). Dietary astaxanthin improved the body pigmentation and antioxidant function, but not the growth of discus fish (Symphysodon spp.). Aquaculture Research, 48 (4), 1359-1367.
[19]
Capelli, B., Bagchi, D., & Cysewski, G. R. (2013). Synthetic astaxanthin is significantly inferior to algal-based astaxanthin as an antioxidant and may not be suitable as a human nutraceutical supplement. Nutrafoods, 12 (4), 145-152.
[20]
Wan, M., Zhang, J., Hou, D., Fan, J., Li, Y., Huang, J., & Wang, J. (2014). The effect of temperature on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation of Haematococcus pluvialis during a light–dark cyclic cultivation. Bioresource technology, 167, 276-283.
[21]
Chekanov, K. A., & Solovchenko, A. E. (2015). Possibilities and limitations of non-destructive monitoring of the unicellular green microalgae (Chlorophyta) in the course of balanced growth. Russian journal of plant physiology, 62 (2), 270-278.
[22]
Boussiba, S., Bing, W., Yuan, J. P., Zarka, A., & Chen, F. (1999). Changes in pigments profile in the green alga Haeamtococcus pluvialis exposed to environmental stresses. Biotechnology Letters, 21 (7), 601-604.
[23]
Steinbrenner, J., & Linden, H. (2001). Regulation of two carotenoid biosynthesis genes coding for phytoene synthase and carotenoid hydroxylase during stress-induced astaxanthin formation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Plant Physiology, 125 (2), 810-817.
[24]
Chen, C. Y., Yeh, K. L., Aisyah, R., Lee, D. J., & Chang, J. S. (2011). Cultivation, photobioreactor design and harvesting of microalgae for biodiesel production: a critical review. Bioresource technology, 102 (1), 71-81.
[25]
Fábregas, J., Otero, A., Maseda, A., & Domínguez, A. (2001). Two-stage cultures for the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of Biotechnology, 89 (1), 65-71.
[26]
Ugwu, C. U., Aoyagi, H., & Uchiyama, H. (2008). Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae. Bioresource technology, 99 (10), 4021-4028.
[27]
Nichols, H. W., & Bold, H. C. (1965). Trichosarcina polymorpha gen. et sp. nov. Journal of Phycology.
[28]
Wong, Y. K., Ho, K. C. (2015) “Optimization for Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Lipid Production in Photobioreactor”. The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers, Hong Kong.
[29]
Wong, Y. K., Ho, K. C., Tsang, Y. F., Wang, L, Yung, KKL Yung (2016) “Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in Column Photobioreactor for Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation”. Water Environment Research 88 (1): 39-45.
[30]
Wong, Y. K., Ho, Y. H., Ho, K. C., Leung, H. M., Yung, K. K. L. (2016) Effect of different light sources on algal biomass and lipid production in Internal LEDs-Illuminated Photobioreactor. Journal of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, 2 (2):1-8.
[31]
Shu, C. H., Tsai, C. C., Liao, W. H., Chen, K. Y., & Huang, H. C. (2012). Effects of light quality on the accumulation of oil in a mixed culture of Chlorella sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology, 87 (5), 601-607.
[32]
Ogbonna, J. C., & Tanaka, H. (2000). Light requirement and photosynthetic cell cultivation–Development of processes for efficient light utilization in photobioreactors. Journal of applied phycology, 12 (3-5), 207-218.
[33]
Dong, S., Huang, Y., Zhang, R., Wang, S., & Liu, Y. (2014). Four different methods comparison for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.
[34]
Sarada, R., Vidhyavathi, R., Usha, D., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2006). An efficient method for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54 (20), 7585-7588.
[35]
Kang, C. D., & Sim, S. J. (2008). Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils. Biotechnology letters, 30 (3), 441-444.
[36]
Zhao, L., Zhao, G., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Wu, J., & Hu, X. (2006). Different effects of microwave and ultrasound on the stability of (all-E)-astaxanthin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54 (21), 8346-8351.
[37]
Pu, J., Bechtel, P. J., & Sathivel, S. (2010). Extraction of shrimp astaxanthin with flaxseed oil: effects on lipid oxidation and astaxanthin degradation rates. Biosystems engineering, 107 (4), 364-371.
[38]
American Public Health Association, America Water Works. (1995). 10200 F. Phytoplankton Counting Techniques. Washington, DC, USA.
[39]
American Public Health Association, America Water Works. (1995b). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Phosphorus-orthophosphate, PO43-P ascorbic acid method. Washington, DC, USA.
[40]
American Public Health Association, America Water Works. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. NO3- spectrophotometric screening method. Washington, DC, USA.
[41]
Huang, S. Y. Studies on Haematococcus Pluvialis Culture Methods and Extraction, Stability and Application of Astaxanthin. (2008).
[42]
Schulze, P. S., Barreira, L. A., Pereira, H. G., Perales, J. A., & Varela, J. C. (2014). Light emitting diodes (LEDs) applied to microalgal production. Trends in biotechnology, 32 (8), 422-430.
[43]
Lababpour, A., Hada, K., Shimahara, K., Katsuda, T., & Katoh, S. (2004). Effects of nutrient supply methods and illumination with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) on astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, 98 (6), 452-456.
[44]
Han, D., Wang, J., Sommerfeld, M., & Hu, Q. (2012). Susceptibility and protective mechanisms of motile and non motile cells of haematococcus pluvialis (chlorophyceae) to photooxidative stress1. Journal of phycology, 48 (3), 693-705.
[45]
Gressel, J. (1979). Blue light photoreception. Photochemistry and photobiology, 30 (6), 749-754.
[46]
Lepetit, B., & Dietzel, L. (2015). Light signaling in photosynthetic eukaryotes with ‘green’and ‘red’chloroplasts. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 114, 30-47.
[47]
Saha, S. K., McHugh, E., Hayes, J., Moane, S., Walsh, D., & Murray, P. (2013). Effect of various stress-regulatory factors on biomass and lipid production in microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. Bioresource technology, 128, 118-124.
[48]
Wang, B., Zarka, A., Trebst, A., & Boussiba, S. (2003). Astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) as an active photoprotective process under high irradiance. Journal of Phycology, 39 (6), 1116-1124.
[49]
Sun, H., Guan, B., Kong, Q., Geng, Z., & Wang, N. (2016). Repeated cultivation: non-cell disruption extraction of astaxanthin for Haematococcus pluvialis. Scientific reports, 6.
[50]
Steinbrenner, J. (2006). Regulation der Astaxanthin biosynthese in der Grünalge Haematococcus pluvialis (Doctoral dissertation).
[51]
Elliot, A. M. (1934). Morphology and life history of Haematococcus pluvialis. Arch. Protistenk, 82, 250-272.
[52]
Boussiba, S., & Vonshak, A. (1991). Astaxanthin accumulation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Plant and cell Physiology, 32 (7), 1077-1082.
[53]
Li, Y. (2007). The role of carotenogenesis in the response of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis to oxidative stress. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
[54]
Kobayashi, M., Katsuragi, T., & Tani, Y. (2001). Enlarged and astaxanthin-accumulating cyst cells of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, 92 (6), 565-568.
[55]
Crampon, C., Boutin, O., & Badens, E. (2011). Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of molecules of interest from microalgae and seaweeds. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50 (15), 8941-8953.
[56]
Wu, W., Lu, M., & Yu, L. (2011). A new environmentally friendly method for astaxanthin extraction from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. European Food Research and Technology, 232 (3), 463-467.
[57]
Xiao, A. F., Ni, H., Cai, H. N., Li, L. J., Su, W. J., & Yang, Q. M. (2009). An improved process for cell disruption and astaxanthin extraction from Phaffia rhodozyma. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25 (11), 2029-2034.
[58]
Günerken, E., d'Hondt, E., Eppink, M. H. M., Garcia-Gonzalez, L., Elst, K., & Wijffels, R. H. (2015). Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries. Biotechnology advances, 33 (2), 243-260.
[59]
Yamamoto, K., King, P. M., Wu, X., Mason, T. J., & Joyce, E. M. (2015). Effect of ultrasonic frequency and power on the disruption of algal cells. Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 24, 165-171.
[60]
Gerde, J. A., Montalbo-Lomboy, M., Yao, L., Grewell, D., & Wang, T. (2012). Evaluation of microalgae cell disruption by ultrasonic treatment. Bioresource technology, 125, 175-181.
[61]
Cuellar‐Bermudez, S. P., Aguilar‐Hernandez, I., Cardenas‐Chavez, D. L., Ornelas‐Soto, N., Romero‐Ogawa, M. A., & Parra‐Saldivar, R. (2015). Extraction and purification of high‐value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins. Microbial biotechnology, 8 (2), 190-209.
[62]
Zou, T. B., Jia, Q., Li, H. W., Wang, C. X., & Wu, H. F. (2013). Response surface methodology for ultrasound-assisted extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Marine drugs, 11 (5), 1644-1655.
[63]
Ambati, R. R., Phang, S. M., Ravi, S., & Aswathanarayana, R. G. (2014). Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications—a review. Marine drugs, 12 (1), 128-152.
[64]
Mendes-Pinto, M. M., Raposo, M. F. J., Bowen, J., Young, A. J., & Morais, R. (2001). Evaluation of different cell disruption processes on encysted cells of Haematococcus pluvialis: effects on astaxanthin recovery and implications for bio-availability.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186