The Arab Revolution in 2011-2012 and Its Impact on Women in the Middle East and North Africa
International Journal of Education, Culture and Society
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2020, Pages: 1-9
Received: Oct. 9, 2019;
Accepted: Jan. 27, 2020;
Published: Feb. 10, 2020
Views 573 Downloads 191
Ashna Shareff, Department of International Politics and Foreign Defence, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
Ko Bong-Jun, Department of International Politics and Foreign Defence, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
This study examines the impact of the Arab revolutions on women in the Middle East and North Africa in 2011. It highlights the aftermath of the revolutions in the context of the rise of Islamist movements and their influence on the state and women. The study analyzes the role of women during the Arab uprisings and how their voices were subsequently undermined throughout the region by new institutions and governments replacing the old totalitarian regimes. This research uses a qualitative literature review with a theoretical framework based on democracy and human rights in the Arab World and political Islam with regards women. Therefore, it’s focused on the period during and after the Arab uprisings and on women’s status. The study mainly criticizes the negative impact political Islam had on women in public and the new patterns of the government. It inspects what we mean by democracy, why democracy is important, what kind of democracy suits Middle East and North of Africa (MENA), and the direct relation between democracy, human rights, and women’s representation in particular.
The Arab Revolution in 2011-2012 and Its Impact on Women in the Middle East and North Africa, International Journal of Education, Culture and Society.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2020, pp. 1-9.
Al-Bizri, D. (2011), Women, Revolution, Politics and Power. Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung - Middle East Office, 9. Retrieved from: http://www.boell.org/downloads/Dalal_al-Bizri-Women_Revolution_Politics_and_Power.pdf
Arieff, A. (2013). Morocco: Current Issues. Congressional Reseach service, 20. Retrieved from: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS21579.pdf
African Development Bank. (2012). Tunisia: economic and social changes beyond the Revolution, 52. Retrieved from: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/Tunisia%20Economic%20and%20Social%20Challenges.pdf
Borovsky, G. & Yahia, A. B. (2012). Women’s Political Participation in Tunisia After the Revolution.41. Retrieved from https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/womens-political-participation-Tunisia-FG-2012-ENG.pdf
World. (2013, May 29). Syrian refugees: Women in Jordan 'sexually exploited'. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22707377 [last accessed July 10, 2013].
BBC World. (2013, December 16). Arab uprising: Country by country. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-12482315 [last accessed December 25, 2013].
Belhaj, R. M. & Wiersinga, A. (2013). Wishes, Demands and Priorities of National and Regional Women’s Organisations in the MENA Region. International Alliance of women, 48. Retrived from: https://www.coe.int/t/ngo/Source/IAW_arab_spring_report.pdf
Brotman S., Katz, E., Karnes, J., West, W., Irvive, A., & Daibes, D. (2008). Implementing CEDAW in North Africa and the Middle East: Roadblocks and victories. Middle East and North Africa (MENA) report, 35. Retrieved from: http://pages.uoregon.edu/aweiss/intl421_521/CEDAW_Report_MENAf.pdf
Carothers, T. and Ottaway, M. (2005), Uncharted Journey: Promoting Democracy in the Middle East. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Catalysts for change. (n.d.). Tunisian women: sustaining the fight for equal rights. 8. Retrieved from: http://www.solidaritycenter.org/Files/Tunisia.English%20Final.bug.pdf
Dabash, H. (2012). The Arab spring: the end of post colonialism. London: Zed books.
Hopman, P. T. & Zartman, I. W. (n.d.). Tunisia: Understanding Conflict 2012. Johns Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies, 241. Retrieved from: https://www.sais-jhu.edu/sites/default/files/areas-of-study/files/Tunisia%20Report%20-%20April%2017%20Final.pdf
Human Rights Watch. (2013). A revolution for all: women's rights in the new Libya, 44. Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/libya0513_brochure_LOWRES.pdf
Lynch, M. (2012). The Arab uprising: the unfinished revolutions of the Middle East. New York: Public Affairs.
Mahmood, F. T. (2013). Women's Rights in Post Revolutionary Egypt: A Step Forward or Back? Ibn Khaldun Center for Development, 18. Retrieved from: http://www.ibnkhalduncenter.org/docs/Women's_Rights.pdf
O'Byrne, D. J. (2003), Human Rights: An Introduction. London. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson Education Limited.
Ramadan, T. (2012). The Arab awakening: Islam & the new Middle East. New York: Penguin Group
Saloom, R. (2007). “Women After”: An Interdisciplinary Examination of Gender in Palestinian Nationalism and the Iranian Revolution. Michigan State Journal of Gender and Law. Retrieved from: http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/msjgl2007&div=5&id=&page=
Salame, G. (1994). Democracy without Democrats? the renewal of politics in the Muslim world. London: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd.
Skocpol, T. (1979). States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Strum, P. (2013) educating for democracy. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Division of US Studies, 62. Retrieved from: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/educatingfordemocracy.pdf
Şahin, P. G. (n.d.). Women's liberties and gender equality in tunisia: the asthma of the Arab spring? Turkish policy quarterly, 8. Retrieved from: http://www.turkishpolicy.com/dosyalar/files/vol_11-no_4%20sahin.pdf
Sharabi, H. (1988). Neopatriarchy: the theory of distorted change in Arab society. New York: Oxford university press, Inc.
Soage, A. (2009). Introduction to Political Islam. 11. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264412727_Introduction_to_Political_Islam
Women’s Learning Partnership. (n.d.). Women’s Rights, and the Arab Spring: Fact Sheet on Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Jordan, 6. Retrieved from: http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Mahnaz_Afkhami_Testimony_Appendix.pdf
Wilson Center. (2012). after the Arab Awakening. 38. Retrieved from: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/Arab%20Awakening%20Marginalizing%20Women_0.pdf