Implementing Pre-Reading Strategies to Improve Struggling ESL Learners’ Interest and Comprehension in English Reading Lessons
International Journal of Education, Culture and Society
Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 94-100
Received: Mar. 4, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 27, 2017;
Published: May 9, 2017
Views 2375 Downloads 205
T. Gewa Thuraisingam, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Santhi Gopal, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Nisha Sasidharan, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Zahra Naimie, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Adelina Asmawi, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This paper presents the implementation of pre-reading strategies to facilitate reading skills and increase interest in reading lessons among struggling ESL primary school pupils using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) which is a multiple-attribute decision process that is normally made by a review committee with experts from academia. It also aims at providing a systematic approach to selecting appropriate pre-reading strategies to improve pupils’ interest and comprehension in English reading lessons. In this study, six English Language teachers from Kuala Lumpur participated as experts to answer a questionnaire in the Fuzzy Delphi method to determine pre-reading strategies that facilitate reading among struggling Year Four pupils. A total of 250 Year Four pupils participated in a comprehension pretest from which thirty-five struggling Year Four pupils were selected. Through the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), three key pre-reading strategies were selected and sequenced according to their degree of importance as selected by the experts. The percentage of consensus achieved was 85% and the fuzzy hierarchy for pre-reading strategies was determined and ranked according to its importance namely activating prior knowledge, teaching explicit vocabulary, and conducting role-play. These strategies were implemented by the expert teachers during two English reading Research Cycles after which a post-test was administered. The post-test and checklists of observation on expert teachers indicated that the chosen pre-reading strategies had a significant effect in increasing pupils’ interest and comprehension in reading.
T. Gewa Thuraisingam,
Implementing Pre-Reading Strategies to Improve Struggling ESL Learners’ Interest and Comprehension in English Reading Lessons, International Journal of Education, Culture and Society.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2017, pp. 94-100.
Pearson, P. D., & Cervetti, G. N. (2015). Fifty years of reading comprehension theory and practice. Research-based practices for teaching Common Core literacy, 1-24.
Scanlon, D. M., Anderson, K. L., & Sweeney, J. M. (2016). Early intervention for reading difficulties: The interactive strategies approach. Guilford Publications.
Azizifar, A., Roshani, S., Gowhary, H., & Jamalinesari, A. (2015). The effect of pre-reading activities on the reading comprehension performance of ilami high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192, 188-194.
Bell, F. L. (2017). Comprehension aids, internet technologies, and the reading of authentic materials by adult second language learners. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66, 2517-18.
Dalkey, N., & Helmer, O. (1963). An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts. Management Science, 9, 458–467.
Bouzon, M., Govindan, K., Rodriguez, C. M. T., & Campos, L. M. (2016). Identification and analysis of reverse logistics barriers using fuzzy Delphi method and AHP. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 108, 182-197.
Skinner, R., Nelson, R. R., Chin, W. W., & Land, L. (2015). The Delphi method research strategy in studies of information systems. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37(1), 2.
Murray, T. J., Pipino, L. L., & Gigch, J. P. (1985). A pilot study of fuzzy set modification of Delphi. Human Systems Management, 6–80.
Calabrese, A., Costa, R., Levialdi, N., & Menichini, T. (2016). A fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method to support materiality assessment in sustainability reporting. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121, 248-264.
Alqarni, F. (2015). Collaborative strategic reading to enhance learners' reading comprehension in English as a Foreign Language. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 4 (1), 161.
Jingwei, Z. (2016). Strategies in Improving the Teaching of English Reading by Applying Schema Theory. In Proceedings of The Fifth Northeast Asia International Symposium on Language, Literature and Translation (p. 582).
Gajria, M., & Jitendra, A. K. (2016). Effective Strategies for Developing Reading Comprehension. In Interventions in Learning Disabilities (pp. 119-137). Springer International Publishing.
Pellicer-Sánchez, A. (2016). Incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition from and while reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(01), 97-130.
Quinn, J. M., Wagner, R. K., Petscher, Y., & Lopez, D. (2015). Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A latent change score modeling study. Child development, 86(1), 159-175.
McKeown, M. G., & Curtis, M. E. (2014). The nature of vocabulary acquisition. Psychology Press.
García, J. R., & Cain, K. (2014). Decoding and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis to identify which reader and assessment characteristics influence the strength of the relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84(1), 74-111.
Yusuf, H. O. (2014). Assessment Of The Implementation Of The Reading Component Of The English Language Curriculum For Basic Education In Nigeria. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(2), 96-102.
Gilje, T. M. (2014). Teacher cognition and the teaching of EFL reading in Norwegian upper primary classrooms. Acta Didactica Norge, 8(2), Art-18.
Myrset, A. (2014). A case study of the benefits and challenges of Readers Theatre in a 6th grade Norwegian EFL class (Master's thesis, University of Stavanger, Norway).
Capellini, S. A., Pinto, C. D. A. R., and Cunha, V. L. O. (2015). Reading comprehension intervention program for teachers from 3rd grade’students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 1339-1345.
Vaish, V. (2016). Student engagement in reading. In Quadrilingual Education in Singapore (pp. 135-151). Springer Singapore.
U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). The Condition of Education 2005(NCES 2005–094). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
Sparks, R. L., Patton, J., & Murdoch, A. (2014). Early reading success and its relationship to reading achievement and reading volume: Replication of ‘10 years later’. Reading and Writing, 27(1), 189-211.
Young, C., Mohr, K. A., and Rasinski, T. (2015). Reading together: A successful reading fluency intervention. Literacy Research and Instruction, 54(1), 67-81.
Eisavi, V., Homayouni, S., and Karami, J. (2016). Integration of remotely sensed spatial and spectral information for change detection using FAHP. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University| İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 66(2), 524-538.