Effects of Nitrate and Pathogenic Nanoparticles on Reproductive Losses, Congenital Hypothyroidism and Musculoskeletal Abnormalities in Mares and Other Livestock: New Hypotheses
Spontaneous abortions, congenital hypothyroidism and musculoskeletal abnormalities were attributed to high nitrate in the diet of pregnant mares on Thoroughbred farms in central Kentucky. These fetal losses, with an unknown etiology, and associated with the Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS) have plagued horse farms in central Kentucky for decades. Fetal losses occur in mares grazing spring pastures affected by climatic and environmental factors including droughts, cold-stress, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides. These factors may cause nitrate to accumulate in pasture forages. On a Thoroughbred horse farm, mares affected with the MRLS, pregnant Boer goats grazing high nitrate pastures also were affected with fetal losses. When spring pastures were not fertilized with nitrogen, herbicides not applied, protein reduced in the ration and the diet increased in sodium, fetal losses did not occur and foals were normal at birth. Excessive nitrate, ammonia and sulfate in the diet were associated with the formation of toxic and pathogenic abiotic nanoparticles in the amnionic fluid and pathognomonic placental lesions consistent with the MRLS. Pathogenic nanoparticles were found in aborted fetuses of other livestock. The discovery of these toxic pathogenic abiotic micro and nanoparticles in developing fetuses is unique. This novel mechanism of action for the pathogenesis of fetal losses may be a predisposing factor for a host of opportunistic diseases in livestock. The pathogenic nanoparticles collect in the vessels of the placenta and other organs to form niduses that predispose fetuses to a host of opportunistic microorganisms.
Thomas Walter Swerczek,
Alan Ray Dorton,
Effects of Nitrate and Pathogenic Nanoparticles on Reproductive Losses, Congenital Hypothyroidism and Musculoskeletal Abnormalities in Mares and Other Livestock: New Hypotheses, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-11.
Swerczek, T. W. (1986) Equine Fetal Diseases. In Current Therapy in Theriogenology 2. DA Marrow editor. W. B. Saunders Company. 699-704.
Swerczek, T. W. (1980) Early Fetal Death and Infectious Placental Disease in the Mare. Proc 26th Ann Conv AAEP. Anaheim, CA. 173-179.
Swerczek T. W. (2018) Sodium for the Prevention of Grass Tetany and Fetal Losses Associated with Nitrate Toxicosis in Herbivores. Nutri Food Sci Int J. 8(1): 555728. DOI:10.19080/NFSIJ.2018.08.5.
Cohen, N. D., Carey, V. J., Donahue, J. G., Seahorn, J. L, Donahue, J. K., D. M. Williams, D. M., Harrison, L. R. (2003) Case-control study of late-term abortions associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky. J Am Vet Assoc, 222, 199-209.
Taylor, J. R. (2002) Theory of ammonia toxicity as the mechanism of abortion in the mare reproductive loss syndrome. J Equine Vet Sci, 22, 237–239.
Swerczek, T. W. (2007) Bacterial Diseases of the Fetus and Placenta Associated with Fetal Loss in the Mare: Early and Late Fetal Loss Syndrome. Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology, 2 ed, Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis, Missouri. pp. 186-188.
Swerczek, T. W. (2002) Saprotrophic Fungi and Bacteria and Commensal Bacteria that infect Frost Damaged Pastures may be Contributing to Gut Microbial Overgrowth and Lesions Associated with the Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome. J. of Equine Veterinary Science, 22, 234-237.
Rooney, J. R. (1966) Contracted Foals. Cornell Vet, 56, 172-187.
Crowe, M. W., Swerczek, T. W. (1985) Equine Congenital Defects. AJVR, 46, 355-358.
Wilsher, S., Ousey, J., Allen, W. R. (2013) Observations on the placentae of eight Thoroughbred foals born with flexural limb deformities. Equine Veterinary Education, 25, 84-95.
Perkins, N. R., Todhunter, K. H., Wylie, R. M., A. E. Begg, A. E., Gilkerson, J. R. Muscatello, G., Racklyeft, D. J., Chicken, C., Wilson, M. C. (2006) Equine amnionitis and foetal loss (EAFL): a newly recognized condition in Australia. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, Australia, Aug. p. 934.
Wang, G., Zhang, R., Gomez, M. E., Yang, L. (2016) Persistent Sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113, 13630–13635.
McLaughlin, B. G. (1981) Hyperplastic goiter in newborn foals in western Canada. Can Vet J, 22, 42-45.
McLaughlin, B. G., Doige, C. E. (1981) Congenital musculoskeletal lesions and hyperplastic goiter in foals. Can Vet J, 22, 130-133.
Kreplin, C., Allen, A. L. (1991) Congenital hypothyroidism in foals in Alberta. Can Vet J, 32, 751.
Allen, A. L., Doige, C. E., Fretz, P. B., Townsend, H. G. G. (1994) Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome. Can Vet J, 35, 31-38.
Allen, A. L, Townsend, H. G. G., Doige, C. E., Fretz, P. B. (1996) A case-control study of the congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome of foals. Can Vet J, 37, 349-358.
Gawrylash, S. K. (2004) Thyroid hyperplasia and musculoskeletal deformity in a Standardbred filly in Ontario. Can Vet J, 45, 424-426.
Koikkalainen, K., Knuuttila, A., Karikoski, N., Syrjä, P., Hewetson, M. (2014) Congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome in foals: First reported cases in Europe. Equine Veterinary Education, 26, 181-189.
Allen, A. L. (1995) Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and musculoskeletal deformities in two equine abortuses. Can Vet J, 36, 234-236.
McLaughlin, B. G., Doige, C. E., McLaughlin, P. S. (1986) Thyroid hormone levels in foals with congenital musculoskeletal lesions. Can Vet J, 27, 264-267.
Mcllwraith, C. W., James, L. F. (1982) Limb deformities in foals associated with ingestion of locoweed by mares. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 181, 255-258.
Swerczek, T. W. (2016) Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbous buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L). JAVMA, 248, 669-672.
Bloomfield, R. A, Welsch, C. W., Garner, G. B., M. E. Muhrer, M. E. (1961) Effect of dietary nitrate on thyroid function. Science, 134, 1690.
Chaoui, A. A., Zaki, A, Talibi, A. Chait, A. Derouche, T. Aboussaouira, F. Benabdjlil, T. Himmi. (2004) Effects of inorganic nitrates on thyroid gland activity and morphology in female rats Therapie, 59, 471-475.
Eskiocak, S., Dundar, C., Basoglu, T., Altaner, S. (2005) The effects of taking chronic nitrate by drinking water on thyroid functions and morphology. Clin Exp Med, 5, 71.
Swerczek, T. W, Dorton, A. R. (2001-2018) Evidence-based field trial results and observations on Thoroughbred horse breeding farms in central Kentucky. Unpublished data.
Hanna, F., Scanlon, M. F. (1997) Hyponatraemia, hypothyroidism, and role of arginine-vasopressin. The Lancet, 350, 755-756.
Blevins, D. G., Remley, M., Lukaszewski, K. Davis, D. (2011) The loss of sodium in freeze damaged tall fescue forage could be a major contributor to spring grass tetany. Forage and Grazinglands, Online, doi: 10.1094/FG.
Swerczek, T. W. (2013) Tyzzer’s Disease in Foals: Retrospective studies from 1969 to 2010. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 54, 876-880.
Simon, J., Sund, J. M., Wright, M. J., Winter, A., Douglas, F. D. (1958) Pathological Changes Associated with the Lowland Abortion Syndrome in Wisconsin. 132, 164-169.
Britt, J., Alvarez, F. (2011) Why are so many cows losing pregnancies? Losing up to 20 percent of pregnancies is not acceptable. Hoard’s Dairyman, 156, 751-752.
Maruo, T., Katayama, K., Matuso, H. Anwar, M., Mochizuki, M. (1992). The role of maternal thyroid hormones in maintaining early pregnancy in threatened abortion Acta Endocrinologica, 127, 118-122.
Gatti, A., Montanari, S. (2008) Nanopathology: The health impact of nanoparticles. Pan Stanford Publishing, Pte. Ltd Singapore, ISBN -10981\-4241-00-8, pp. 1-298.
McClements, D. J., Xlio, H. (2017) Is nano safe in foods? Establishing the factors impacting the gastrointestinal fate and toxicity of organic and inorganic food-grade nanoparticles. npj Science of Food, Article number 6.