Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis Using Abattoir Meat Inspection in Cattle Slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir, North Ethiopia
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 89-96
Received: Sep. 16, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 28, 2017; Published: Oct. 30, 2017
Views 2430      Downloads 142
Tarekegn Tintagu Gizaw, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
Bethelehem Alemu Minalu, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
Yalew Tefera Asfaw, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopia and like other developing countries in Africa. Ethiopia has limited laboratory and other diagnostic facilities. Therefore, abattoir inspection still remains the only option for monitoring BTB prevalence in domestic animals. A cross-sectional type of study was conducted at Gondar ELFORA abattoir from October, 2009 to April, 2010 to assess the prevalence of BTB slaughtered cattle. During this time, a total of 500 animals under gone on ante mortem and detailed post mortem inspections and 43(8.6%) of the animals were found to be with tuberculous lesions. About 84.8% of the tuberculous lesions were found in the lymph nodes of the thoracic cavity (mediastinal and bronchial), followed by 11.6% in the lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity (mesenteric) and the remaining 4.65% in the lymph nodes of the head (retropharyngeal). From the 43 cattle samples that were suspicious to contain tuberculous lesions, samples of lymph nodes were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen media and growth of Mycobacterium was observed on 5/43(11.6%) samples. In this study, age (χ2=3.351, p value=0.187) and breed (χ2=1.087, p value=0.29) have not shown any association with post mortem results whereas origin (χ2=147.179, p value=0.0252), anatomical sites (χ2=468.814, p value=0.00), sex χ2=23.688, p value=0.011), body condition score (χ2=17.342, p value=0.00) and culture results (χ2=121.48, p value=0.00) have shown associations with post mortem result. Based on this study, it is recommended that integrated preventive approaches involving enhanced surveillance of the disease through establishment of standardized abattoirs well-equipped with laboratory facilities.
Bovine, Cross-Sectional, Culture, M. Bovis, Risk Factors
To cite this article
Tarekegn Tintagu Gizaw, Bethelehem Alemu Minalu, Yalew Tefera Asfaw, Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis Using Abattoir Meat Inspection in Cattle Slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir, North Ethiopia, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 89-96. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20170505.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
OIE, 2009. Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Terrestrial manual: Bovine Tuberculosis, World Health Organization for Animal Health, Paris. Chapter 2, 4, 7.
Pollock, J. M., Welsh, M. D. and Mc Nair, J. 2005. Immune Responses In Bovine Tuberculosis towards the New Strategies for the Diagnosis and Control of Disease Veterinary Immune and Immunopathology, 108: 37-43.
Ashioford, D. A., Whitney, E., Rahunathan, P. and Cosivi, A. 2001. Epidemiology of Selected Mycobacteria That Infect Human and Other Animals Technical and Scientific Review, Office of International des Epizootics., 20: 105-112.
Biet, F., Boschiroli, M. L., Thorel, M. F. and Guilloteau, L. A., 2005. Zoonotic Aspects of M. bovis And M. avium-Intracellular Complex. Veterinary Research, 36.
Kazwala, R. R., Kambarage, D. M., Daborn, C. J., Nyange, J., Jiwa, S. F. and Sharp, J. M. (2001). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communication, 25: 609–614.
WHO (2009). Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy, financing. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
Cockele, J. W. and Tustin, R. C., 2004. Infectious Diseases of Livestock 2nd ed Volume. 3. Oxford University Press Southern Africa Pp 1973-1990.
AMENI, G. and ROGER, F. 1998. Study on the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in dairy farms (Debre Zeit and Ziway, Ethiopia). In: Proceeding of the 12th Conference of the Ethiopian Veterinary Association (EVA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-19.
KIROS, T. 1998. Epidemiology and zoonotic importance of bovine tuberculosis in selected sites of Eastern Shoa, Ethiopia. Faculties of Veterinary Medicines of Addis Ababa University an Free University of Berlin, MSc Thesis.
Ameni, G., Regassa, A., Kassa, I., and Medhin, G., 2001. Survey on Bovine Tuberculosis and Its Public Health Implication to Cattle raising Families In Wolaita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia. Journal Animal Production, 1: Pp. 55-62.
Bogale, A., Lubke-Beker, A., Lemma, E., Kiros, T., Britton, S. 2001. Bovine Tuberculosis: A Cross Sectional and Epidemiological Study In and Around Addis Ababa. Bulletin of Animal Health Production in Africa, 48: 71-80.
Corner, L. A., Melville, L., M., Cubbin, K., Small, K. J., Mc Cormincn, B. S., Wood, P. R and Rothel, J. S., 1994. Efficiency of Inspection Procedure for The Detection of Tuberculosis Lesions in Cattle, 67 (11): 381-392.
Whipple D. L., Bolin C. A., Miller J. M. (1996): Distribution of lesions in cattle infected with M. bovis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic and Investment, 8: 351–354.
Teklu, A., Asseged, B., Yimer, E., Gebeyehu, M. and Woledesenbet, Z. 2004. Tuberculosis Lesions do not detected by Routine Abattoir Inspection. The Experience of the Hossana Municipality Abattoir Southern Ethiopia. Rev Science Technology, 23(3): 957-964.
Thoen C. O., Huchzermeyer H., Himes E. M. (1995): Laboratory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. In: Thoen C. O., Steele J. H. (eds.): M. bovis Infection in Animals and Humans. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. 63–72.
Wards B. J., Collins D. M., de Lisle G. W. (1995): Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in tissues by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Microbiology, 43: 227–240.
Demelash, B., Inangolet, F., Oloya, J., Asseged, B., Badaso, M., Yilkal, E and Skjerve, E. 2008. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia Slaughter Cattle Based on Post Mortem Examination.
Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ, Raviglione MC, Fujikura T, 1998. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developingountries. Emerging Infectious Disease, 4(1): 1-17.
Nicholson MJ, Butterworth MH (1986). A guide to condition scoring of zebu cattle. ILRI/FAO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Thrusfield, M., 2005. Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd ed. Blackwell science ltd, Oxford,
Hailemariam S. (1975): A brief analysis of activities of Meat Inspection and Quarantine Division, Department of Veterinary Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Asseged, B., Woledesenbet, Z., Yimer, E. and Lemma, E. 2004. Evaluation of Abattoir Inspection for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle at Addis Ababa Abattoir. Tropical Animal Health production, 36 (6): 537-546.
de Kantor, I. N., Nadar, A., Bernarden, A., Grano, O. D and Man, E. 1998. Tuberculosis in Cattle not Detected By Slaughter House Inspection. Journal of Veterinary Medicine.
Habtom, A. 2008. Cross a Sectional Study of Bovine TB in Gondar ELFORA Abattoir, North Gondar, Ethiopia. DVM, Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Deberizeit, Ethiopia.
Ameni, G. and Wudie, A., 2003. Preliminary Study on Bovine Tuberculosis In Adama.
Anebo, M., 2007. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Adama Municipality Abattoir DVM Thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre zeit, Ethiopia.
Shitaye, J. E., Tsegaye, W. and Pavlik, I. 2007. Bovine Tuberculosis Infection in Animal and Human Population in Ethiopia: A review Veterinary Medicine Pp. 317-332.
Taddele, H. 2006. A Cross Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Jinka Municipal Abattoir, Southern Ethiopia DVM Thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre zeit, Ethiopia.
Degene, Y.2007. A Cross Sectional Study Of Bovine TB In Jinka Municipal Abattoir Southern Ethiopia, DVM, Thesis, Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Deberizeit, Ethopia.
Terefe, Y. 2007. A Cross-sectional study of Bovine TB: In Gondar ELFORA Abattoir. DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre zeit, Ethiopia.
Elias, K., Hussein, D. Asseged, B. Wondwossen, T, T. and Gebeyehu, M. (2008). Bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms. Review of Science and Technology, Office International des Epizooties, 27: 915-923.
Oloya J, Kazwala R, Lund A, Opuda-Asibo J, Demelash B. 2007 Characterization of Mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda. BMC Microbiology, 7: 95.
Radostits OM, Blood DC (1994). Disease caused by mycobacteria IV. In: Veterinary Medicine. 7th Ed. UK: Bailliere Tindall, London, pp. 710–740.
Hassen, A. 2006. A Cross Sectional Study of Bovine Tuberculosis In Wolidya Municipal Abattoir North Wollo, Ethiopia, DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre zeit, Ethiopia.
Negesse, W. 2007. Cross Sectional Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Butajira Municipality Abattoir DVM, thesis, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre zeit, Ethiopia.
Collins FM (1994). The immune response to mycobacterial infection: development of new vaccines Veterinary Microbiology, 40: 95-110.
Ayele, W. Y., Neill, S. D., Zinsstag, J., Weiss, M. G. and Pavlik, I. 2004. Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa. International Journal of Tubercle and Lung Disease, 8:924–937.
Bogale A, Liibke-becker A, Lemma E, Kirose T, Britton S. 2000. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and Epidemiological study in and around Addis Ababa. Bulletin of Animal Health Production in Africa 48:71-80
Asseged B, Lübke-Becker A, Lemma E, Taddele K, Britton S (2000). Bovine tuberculosis: a cross-sectional and epidemiological study in and around Addis Ababa. Bulletin of Animal Health Production in Africa, 48:71-80.
Mu¨ller B, Steiner B, Bonfoh B, Fane A, Smith NH, 2008. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali. BMC Veterinary Research, 4: 26.
Radostits O. M., Gray G. C., Blood D. C., Hinchelift K. W. (2000). A text Book of Disease of Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Goat and Horses. In: Veterinary Medicine. 9th ed. Harcourt Publisher Ltd., London. 909–918.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) 2016. Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia. Central statistical agency. Agricultural sample survey, Volume II, Report on livestock and livestock characteristics. Statistical bulletin 583, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186